Q. Someone said that Salat al Hajat is Bidah and fabricated and he put forward a fatwa showing this.
Now I need as much as classifications of muhaddithuun about the hadith on Salat ul Hajat as recorded by Tirmizi (Witr, 479) and Ibn Madjah (Iqama, 1384) which they did narrate from Abdullah bin Abu Awfa.
I also need some Jarh and Tadil about Fayd bin Abdurrahman (Fayd Abul Warkah) as Imam Tirmizi said after the hadith about him that some said he is weak in hadith.
I have seen that there also other narrations about Salat al Hajat such as;
According to a narration by Abu Hashim al Ayilli on the authority of Anas bin Malik (ra), the Prophet (SAW) once said;
If someone has a seriously pressing need, requiring Allahs help, he should perform the ritual ablution (wudhu) with proper care. He should then perform 2 cycles of ritual prayer (rakatayn). In the first cycle he should recite the Surah al Fatiha and the Ayaat al Kursi, and the second cyle the Surah al Fatiha and Amanar Rasulu. Then having pronounced the testimony (tashahhud) and the salutation (taslima), he should make his plea by offering this prayer of supplication (dua), for his need will then be satisfied.
I don’t know the source of this narration, but this was mentioned on Sunnipath in the fatwa about Voluntary Prayers, it would be nice to get the source and classification of this narration.
Also are there other narrations which speak about Salat al Hajat?
A. Saying that Salatul Hajat is a Bid’ah and it is fabricated is totally wrong and the one who says it is engrossed with deep ignorance.
With respect to the tradition which has been narrated by Imam Tirmizi, he says after quoting the tradition, ‘This hadith is ‘Ghareeb’ and in the sanad (narration) there is ‘Maqal’ (statements). Faa’id bin Abdur Rahman is weak in hadith and Faa’id is Abul Waraqa’. (Tirmizi Pg. 108-109 – Arabic text).
Note that three words have been used by Imam Tirmizi in his statement regarding the tradition. First of all he states that the hadith is ‘Ghareeb’. The word ‘Ghareeb’ literally means uncommon, strange, odd etc. However, in the science of hadith, it refers to a classification of hadith. According to the scholars of hadith, it refers to such traditions where one person narrates from those traditionists who are reliable, authentic and trustworthy like the great traditionists such as Zuhri, Qatada etc. (Tadreebur Raawi (Usoolul Hadith) Vol. 2 Pg. 181).
This explanation goes to show that a hadith being classified as ‘Ghareeb’ does not mean that it is weak, fabricated or unacceptable. In fact, there are many traditions which Imam Tirmizi has classified under the word ‘Ghareeb’ but yet it has been accepted and practiced by the scholars through the ages. In this regard, he says about a hadith narrated from Aisha, ‘The hadith of Aisha (R.A.) is ‘Ghareeb’. We do not know of it being Marfoo except from the hadith of Mazahir bin Aslam and Mazahir is not known in the field of knowledge except (through) this hadith. And practice is upon this hadith according to the people of knowledge from the companions of the Prophet (S.A.S.) and others. (Tirmizi – The chapter of divorce – which comes about the divorce of a female slave is two).
Here, it is clear that a hadith has been classified as ‘Ghareeb’ but yet it has been fully accepted by the scholars because it is sound and authentic.
The second word used by Imam Tirmizi is that there is ‘Maqal’ in the sanad.
‘Maqal’ means speech and here in the science of hadith it refers to the fact that there is contention in the sanad (narration).
However, it should be understood that the usage of the word ‘Maqal’ (contention) regarding a certain sanad does not mean that it is unacceptable or unreliable. In fact, Imam Tirmizi has used this word regarding other Isnad, but has mentioned that it is acceptable by the scholars and they have practiced upon it. In this regard, he says about a tradition which comes from Amr bin Shuaib ‘This hadith, in its Isnad there is ‘Maqal’ (contention). And practice is upon it according to the people of knowledge’. He then says ‘and this is the statement of Malik bin Anas, Awzaa’i, Shafi, Ahmad and Ishaq. (Tirmizi).
We should note that although Imam Tirmizi said that there is contention in the Isnad of the hadith, the great traditionists like Imam Malik, Shafi, Ahmad, Awzaai, and Ishaq have all accepted it because they have considered it sound and authentic.
The use of the word ‘Maqal’ simply refers to the fact that there are differences of opinion among the scholars of hadith with respect to the sanad which has been mentioned. Some may have accepted it and others may have not. As such the word ‘Maqal’ being used for any sanad, does not indicate that it may be weak and unacceptable.
Having stated that there is contention in the sanad (that is, in the topic of salat Al Hajat) Imam Tirmizi went on to explain the contention. He said, ‘Faa’id bin Waraqa is weak in hadith’.
An important point to note is that in all that Imam Tirmizi has written, there is absolutely no statement of his which says that the hadith is Mawdhu (fabricated). The statement that a certain narrator or narration is weak is totally different from it being called ‘Mawdhu’ (fabricated).
With respect to the narrator Faa’id bin Abdur Rahman, the great scholars have written about him in the following manner:
(1) Imam Hafiz Ibn Addi has written in Al Kamil Fi Dhu’afaa Ar Rijaal, ‘From Yahya, he states Faa’id is not Thiqa (reliable). At another place he says he is weak’. Ibn Addi also gives other opinions of other scholars who says that his hadith has not been accepted. Imam Bukhari says ‘his hadith are rejected’. (Al Kamil Fi Dhu’afaa Ar Rijaal Vol. 7 Pg. 138). Similar statements have been written in Lisanul Mizaan, Taqreebut Tahzeeb and others.
Having written this, Ibn Addi went on to quote three other traditions which have been narrated by Faa’id (Abul Waraqaa) and they have been accepted since they are fully supported by other traditions. The first tradition is narrated by Abul Waraqaa he said, ‘I heard Abdullah bin Abi Awfa saying, ‘I saw the Prophet (S.A.S.) performing Wazu he washed his limbs three times and made masah of the head once’.
This hadith of Abul Waraqaa (Faa’id bin Abdur Rahman) has been accepted since there are other supporting traditions which attest to its soundness. In this regard, the same tradition has been narrated from Rabee bint Mu’awiz (R.A.) by Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah.
The other tradition has also been narrated by Faa’id Abul Waraqaa from Abdullah bin Abi Awfa (R.A.) who said that, ‘When the Prophet (S.A.S.) got up in the morning he said, ‘Asbahna wa Asbahal Mulku lillah ……’.
This tradition of Abul Waraqaa (Faa’id) has also been accepted since it has supporting traditions to attest to it. In this regard, Hafiz Iraqi has mentioned the tradition in his Takreej of the Ahadith of Al Ihya. Hafiz Zubaidi has mentioned it in Al Ittihaaf and Ibn Sunni has mentioned it in ‘Amalul Yawm Wal Laila’.
Ibn Addi has stated that Abul Waraqaa has narrated other traditions from the companion (Sahabi) Abdullah bin Abi Awfa.
He (Ibn Addi) also narrated another tradition in which it states, from Faa’id Abul Waraqaa from Ibnul Munkadir from Jabir (R.A.) who says that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.S.) said, ‘Whoever says la-ilaha illalah wahdahu……’.
This tradition of Abul Waraqaa has also been accepted since it has supporting traditions to attest to it. Such traditions have been narrated by Hafiz Munziri in ‘At Targheeb’, Tabrani in Al Kabeer, Abu Nuaim in Al Hilya and Ibn Asakir in his Tareekh.
Having quoted these three traditions from Faa’id Abul Waraqaa, Ibn Addi states, ‘And for Faa’id there are other narrations besides that which have been mentioned. And notwithstanding his weakness, his Ahadith are written. (Al Kamil (Ibn Addi) Vol. 7 Pg. 139).
From the above explanation of Ibn Addi, it shows that Faa’id bin Abdur Rahman’s Ahadith can be accepted as in the cases shown. In fact, Hafiz Munziri has stated, ‘And Faa’id, he is matrook (i.e. his hadith is not genaraly accepted). However reliable and trustworthy narrators have narrated from him’. (Tuhfatul Ahwazee, Sharh Tirmizi Vol. 2 Pg. 603).
The tradition of Faa’id Abul Waraqaa regarding Salat al Hajat has also been recorded by Hakim in Al Mustadrak. Having quoted the tradition, Hakim states, ‘Faa’id bin Abdur Rahman, Abul Waraqaa is from Koofa and is from among the Tabi’een. I have seen a group of scholars who have followed him. He is one who is upright in hadith, (Mustaqeemul hadith) except that Imam Bukhari and Muslim did not narrate from him. (Mustadrak by Hakim Vol. 1 Pg. 431).
Besides the tradition of Abul Waraqaa, there are other traditions which indicate to the performance of two rakaats salaat followed by supplications when one is in need of something. Hakim has narrated a tradition in his famous Al Mustadrak which states, ‘Uthman bin Hunaif narrates that a blind man came to the Prophet (S.A.S.) and said, ‘supplicate to Allah to grant me relief’. The Prophet said, ‘If you wish I would delay this and it would be better for you and if you wish, I will supplicate for you’. The man said, ‘Supplicate’. The Prophet (S.A.S.) then ordered him to perform his wazu in a good manner, then perform two rakaats and supplicate with this dua. He said, say, ‘Allahumma inni As’aluka ………….’
Having quoted this hadith, Hakim states, ‘This hadith is sound (saheeh) and it is in accordance to the conditions laid by Imam Bukhari and Muslim, but they did not narrate it. (Al Mustadrak Vol. 1 Pg. 424). Imam Tirmizi has also recorded it and said, ‘This hadith is good and sound). (Tirmizi).
The hadith shows that the man had a need and he was told by the Prophet (S.A.S.) to perform wazu, perform two rakaats and supplicate to Allah in the words taught to him.
Another hadith states that Huzaifa (R.A.) said, ‘Whenever a matter became serious, the Prophet (S.A.S.) turned to Salaah. (Recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Hafiz ibn Hajar has quoted it in his book Fathul Baari and has said, ‘It is with a good sanad’).
The tradition shows that the Prophet (S.A.S.) himself would turn to Salaah whenever he was affected or confronted with anything. As such, a need is one which is a matter of seriousness and turning to Salaah and supplication is indeed one of the best ways to fulfill it. In fact the believers are ordered in the Holy Quran to ‘Seek help in patience and Salaah’. Hence, turning to Salaah for assistance in fulfilling one’s need is from the guidance which Allah has given to the believers in the Holy Quran.
In another tradition, Anas (R.A.) narrates that the Prophet (S.A.S.) said, ‘O Ali! Should I not inform you of a dua (supplication), whenever you are touched by a grief or worry, you would supplicate to your lord with it, and your supplication shall be accepted with Allah’s permission and he will remove your grief? Perform wazu and pray two rakaats, then praise and glorify Allah. Send blessings upon your Prophet and seek forgiveness for your sins and that of the believing men and women. Then say, ‘Allahumma Anta Tahkumu Baina Ibaadika ………’. (Recorded by Hafiz Isbahani in At Targeeb with a strong sanad).
Not withstanding the weakness which some of the traditionists have highlighted regarding the hadith of Abul Warqaa, many traditionists and jurists have generally accepted the act of Salat Al Hajat as one that is commendable and encouraged. It is with respect to this general acceptance, we see that many of the great and reliable jurists and scholars of the former and latter times have dedicated a chapter in their respective books called ‘Salaah Al Hajaat’.
In this regard, the celebrated Muhaddith (traditionist) and Faqeeh (jurist), Ibn Qudama (died 620 A.H.) has mentioned ‘the chapter of Salaah Al Hajah in his famous and authentic book, ‘Al Mugni’. In this he writes ‘The chapter of Salaah Al Hajah’. From Abdullah bin Abi Awfa (R.A.), he said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.S.) said, ‘whoever has a need from Allah or from any of the children of Adam, let him perform wazu and do it good. Then let him perform two rakaats and glorify Allah and send blessings upon the Prophet. Then he should say, ‘La ilaha Illalahul Kareem …..’. (Al Mugni Vol. 1 Pg. 134)
Similarly, the great scholar Abdur Rahman has written in his famous and accepted book, ‘Fiqh ala Mazahibil Arba’a, ‘Salaah of fulfilling one’s needs. It is commendable for a person who has a need that he should perform two rakaats Salaah as it is recorded in the statement of the Prophet (S.A.S.), ‘whoever has a need from Allah or from anyone from the children of Adam. Let him perform wazu and do it good. Then he should perform two rakaats …… . (Fiqh alal Mazahibil Arba’a Vol. 1 Pg. 335).
In this manner, the act of performing Salaah Al Hajah has been endorsed and recorded by many leading traditionists and jurists from among the former and latter scholars in their respective books.
As such, it is one which is commendable and acceptable in the teachings of Islam. It is not fabricated, nor is it a Bid’ah.
And Allah knows best.
Mufti Waseem Khan