I choose to follow the madhab of Imam Abu Hanifa but I am tolerant of others and there difference of opinion. I have come across some people in recent in times that keep saying I should not pray any salah when the first adhan is called for jummah at all untill after the salat in congregation, another group that says the four rakats that I normally pray before the second adhan is not sunnah because there is no authentic evidence that it was done in the time of Rasulullah (S.A.W) and what ever evidence that some present is weak, and also others that say you can pray any amount before the second adhan but you cannot call it sunnah of jummah, it must be intended as Nafil… Please clarify this issue for me with proof so that I can show it to them and not feel like I am doing something wrong.
Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
With respect to performing salaah before the second Adhan on the day of Juma, this is evident from authentic narrations. It is mentioned in reliable books of ahadith that one can perform four or six rakaats of Salaah (Sunnah or nafl) after the 1st. Adhan and before the second Adhan on the day of Juma.
With respect to the allowance to perform Salaah at this time, this is established from the direct words of the Prophet (SAS). In this regard, Abu Hurairah and Abu Saeed (RA) both narrated that the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘Whoever takes a bath on the day of Juma, does miswak, wears good clothing and applies sweet scent (itr) if he gets any-and then comes out for Salaah, not causing harm to anyone, and then performs whatever amount of Salaah Allah wishes for him to perform. Then when the Imam comes out, he remains silent- this will be an expiation (for his sins) until the next Juma’. (Hakim in his Mustadrak who says that this hadith is Saheeh (sound) and is in accordance to the conditions laid by Muslim- Al Mustadrak Ala As Saheehain vol.1 pg.392 Darul Fikr Beirut 2002). In another narration, Abu Hurairah (RA) said that the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘Whoever takes a bath and comes for Juma and then performs as much Salaah as decreed for him. Then remains silent until the Imam completes his khutba, and then performs Salaah with him- he will be forgiven from this Juma until the other Juma. (Muslim). In another tradition, Salman Al Farsi narrates that the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘Whoever takes a bath on the day of Juma and purifies himself to the best of his ability, then applies oil or sweet scent (itr). And then goes for Juma, not parting two people who are sitting, and then performs whatever amount of Salaah is decreed for him(that is, the amount he wishes to do), then when the Imam comes out to deliver the khutba, he remains silent- he will be forgiven from this Juma until the next. (Sahih Al Bukhari vol.1 pg. 124).
These narrations, (as well as others), make it abundantly clear that the Prophet (SAS) himself encouraged the Muslims to perform Salaah before the Imam begins to give the khutba. He said about the person who takes a bath and comes for Juma, ‘and then performs whatever amount of Salaah Allah wishes for him to perform’- this shows that he has connected the virtues mentioned in these traditions to the act of performing salah before the Imam begins the khutba (that is, before the second Adhan is given). These traditions, therefore, establishes the fact that the Prophet (SAS) himself endorsed, accepted and encouraged the performance of Salaah before the second Adhan on the day of Juma. Hence, it is wrong for one to assume that no rakaats of Salaah should be performed before the second Adhan.
Besides this, it is evident from different Sahabahs that they performed salaah before the second Adhan. In this regard, Ata bin As Sa’ib states. ‘Abu Abdur Rahman As Salmi says that Abdullah bin Umar used to order us to perform four rakaats of Salaah before Juma and four after Juma’. (Majma’ud Zawa’id by Haithami; Nasbur Rayah vol. 2 pg. 215; Musannaf of Abdur Razak). Having mentioned this narration in his famous compilation of ahadith, ‘Athaarus Sunan’, Allama Nimawi says, ‘the sanad of this is Saheeh’ (Athaarus Sunan pg.249).
The great scholar Allama Zafar Ahmad Uthmani has also narrated this narration in his famous work ‘llaa’us Sunan’, and said, ‘this is a Mawquuf (suspended) narration which is within the law of a Marfu narration, since it is evident that Abdullah bin Umar (RA) could have only ordered other Muslims to perform these rakaats when he knew that it was evident from the Prophet (SAS). (ILaa’us Sunan vol. 7 pg 10).
In another narration, Ata (AR) has narrated that when Abdullah bin Umar (RA) was in Makka and he performed Juma, he would perform two rakaats before it, then he will perform four rakaats. However, when he was in Madina, he will perform Juma and return to his house and then perform two rakaats. When he was asked about this, he replied that the Prophet (SAS) used to do these acts’. (Hakim has recorded this in his Al Mustadrak and said that it was Saheeh and in accordance to the conditions laid by Imams Bukhari and Muslim – Al Mustadrak vol.1 pg.398,399 Darul Fikr Beirut 2002) (Abu Daud; Al Iraaqi said that the sanad is saheeh (sound). (Athaarus Sunan pg. 249).
From this tradition (which is sound), one can see clearly that Abdullah bin Umar performed six rakaats (two and then four) before Juma, and then attributed this act to the Prophet (SAS). Obviously, Abdullah bin Umar, being a great companion and a great scholar among the Sahabahs, knew very well that this was done by the Prophet (SAS) and this is why he also did to.
In another narration, Ibn Juraij said that Ata informed him that he saw Abdullah bin Umar (RA) performing Salaah on the day of Jumu’ah. He (Ibn Umar) will come to the place where Jumu’ah Salaah was going to be performed, a little while before Jum’uah and perform two rakaats. Then he will move a short distance away and perform four rakaats. Ibn Juraij said, ‘I said to Ata, how many times you saw Ibn Umar dong this?’ He said, ‘many times’. (This is a Saheeh narration recorded by Hakim- Al Mustadrak vol.1 pg 399 Darul Fikr Beirut 2002).
Another tradition stated that Ali (RA) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (SAS) used to perform four rakaats of Salaah before Jumu’ah and four after it’. (Tibrani in Al Awsat- Ilaa’us Sunan vol.7 pg. 13). While explaining this narration, the great scholar of Hadith, Allama Zafar Ahmad (AR) wrote that scholars have written about the narrator (in this narration) known as Muhammad bin Abdur Rahman As Sahmi and he is weak according to Imam Bukhari. But this is not so. In fact, the great scholar Ibn Addi has written about him that, ‘there is no harm in him’. Ibn Hibban has considered him to be from the reliable and trustworthy narrators. Hafiz Iraqi has stated that it is evident that the Prophet (SAS) used to perform four rakaats before Jumu’ah’. (Ilaa’us Sunnan vol.7 pg.13).
In another tradition, it is narrated that Abdullah bin Abbas (RA) said, ‘the Prophet (SAS) used to perform four rakaats before Juma Salaah and four after it’.(Tibrani in Al Kabeer).
After narrating this tradition, the great scholar Allama Zafar Ahmad (RA) has written that in this sanad there is Hajaj bin Artah and Atiya Al Awfi, some scholars of hadith have spoken against them and considered them not reliable which means that the hadith will be weak according to them.
It is to be noted that this tradition has also been mentioned by Ibn Majah with a different Sanad. Many scholars have considered Ibn Mahah’s narration to be weak because of the weakness of the Sanad (on account of another narrator also, whose name is Mubashir bin Ubaid).
As for the narration of Tibrani, it has not been treated on the same level as the narration of Ibn Majah since Tibrani’s Sanad has only two names that have been spoken about (namely Hujaj bin Artah and Atiya Al Awfi).
While some scholars have considered these two as not being reliable narrators, other scholars have accepted their narrations and have stated that they are reliable, trustworthy and sound narrators of hadith. In this regard, Allama Al Aini (the great scholar of hadith and commentator of Sahih Al Bukhari ) has written in his ‘Umdatul Qaari’ that ‘Hajaj bin Artah is truthful. Yahya bin Mu’een, the great Muhaddith has stated that Atiya Al Awfi is Salih (good) (i.e a good narrator). Ibu Sa’ad has stated that Atiya is ‘Thiqah’ (sound and reliable) and he has good narrations. Having given these narrations with their relevant references, Allama Zafar Ahmad writes, ‘the hadith with the Sanad of Tibrani is therefore Hasan (good)’. This means it is not weak, and amal (practice) is made upon it. (Ilaa’us Sunan vol.7 pg. 14).
The great scholar and jurist, Allama Ibn Ameer Haaj has taken the following narration as proof for the performance of four rakaats before the Juma Salaah. This narration has been recorded by Abu Dawood and Tirmizi from Abu Ayub Al Ansari (RA) who says, ‘The Prophet (SAS) used to perform four rakaats of Salaah after Zawaal (midday)’. So I asked, ‘What is this Salaah you are consistent upon?’ He said, ‘This is the time when the doors of the heavens are open and I love that during this time good actions for me are sent up’. I (Abu Ayub) said, ‘Is there qirat (Quranic recitation ) in every rakaat?’ He (the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘Yes’. I said, ‘Are these read with one set of Salaams or two set of Salaams’. He (the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘with one set of Salaams’. In this sanad is Ubaida bin Mut’ab Abu Abdul Kareem Adh Dhabi Al kufi who is a good narrator, Ibn Addi has stated that his traditions are written (accepted), and the great scholars of hadith like Sufyan Thauri, Shubah, Haitham, Wakee, Jareer and many others have narrated from him’.
Having given this explaination, the great scholar and jurist Allama Ibn Ameer Haaj writes, ‘In this narration , there is a clear indication that the Prophet (SAS) was consistent in performing four rakaats of Salaah after Zawaal (midday), and this was done on all days including the day of Juma’. (Ilaa’us Sunan vol.7 pgs.14,15, Sharhul Muniya pg. 368,373).
There are more explainations that can be given with respect to this issue. However, this is sufficient to show that the performance of four rakaats of Salaat is evident before the Juma Salaah (that is, before the second Adhan).
With respect to the intention for it, one can make the intention of performing four rakaats of sunnah or nafl Salaah before Jumu’ah. Both are acceptable.
And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan