Boguz and Keena both mean malice, hatred and rancor in the heart for others. Hatred for another person is totally prohibited in Islam and is from among the vices of the heart.
While showing to what extent this is prohibited, Allah mentions that the true believers are those who pray to Allah to keep their hearts pure from hatred and rancor. About this, the Quran mentions the dua of the believers who said, “And [there is a share for] those who came after them, saying, “Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts [any] hatred toward those who have believed. Our Lord, indeed You are Kind and Merciful.” (Surah Al Hashr Verse 10).
Allah also mentions that this vice is so evil, that it has to be removed from the hearts before the believers can enter paradise. In other words, the hearts of the believers must be pure/ free from this vice for their entry into paradise. In this regard, Allah says in the Holy Quran: “And We will remove whatever is in their breasts of hatred, [so they will be] brothers, on thrones facing each other”. (Surah Al Hijr Verse 47).
In another verse Allah says: “And We will have removed whatever is within their breasts of resentment, [while] flowing beneath them are rivers. And they will say, “Praise to Allah, who has guided us to this; and we would never have been guided if Allah had not guided us. Certainly the messengers of our Lord had come with the truth.” And they will be called, “This is Paradise, which you have been made to inherit for what you used to do.” (Surah Al Hijr Verse 47).
These verses explain that hatred and rancor must never find place in the hearts of the believers. As mentioned by Imam Ghazali, there are 8 evils arising out of hatred (boguz/keena). These are:-, envy, becoming happy at the sorrows of others, not cooperating with another person, contempt, backbiting, ridicule, assault and not helping another person. If anybody is free from hatred, he gets free from these evils.’ (Ihya Al Uloom vol. 3 pg. 152 (English) Islamic Book Service New Delhi India 2006).
It is therefore imperative for a Muslim to clean his heart from hatred for others. The Prophet (s.a.w) commanded the believers in the following words, ‘Do not hate one another, nor be jealous of one another; and do not desert one another, but O Allah’s worshippers! Be brothers. It is not lawful for a Muslim to desert his brother Muslim (and not to talk to him) for more than three nights.’ (Saheeh Muslim – Book on Al Birr – Chapter Mutual Fellow-feeling and love among the believers). The hadith emphasize upon the believers that they should not have hatred in their hearts for each other. If any ill feelings come about between two Muslims, then it should not remain unsolved, and remain in the hearts for more than three days.
Another hadith mentions that the Prophet (s.a.w) said, ‘The gates of paradise are opened on Mondays and Thursdays, and forgiveness is granted to every man who does not associate anything with Allah, except for a man between whom and his brother there is hatred/rancor. A command is given that they should be given respite until they reconcile.’ (Abu Dawood – Book on Al Adab. Chapter on a Man who keeps apart from his Muslim brother.)
This tradition shows that hatred is such a grave sin that it prevents a person from receiving the forgiveness of Allah. The way of curing this vice is firstly to control one’s anger. It is seen that hatred and malice come about on account of anger. Anger brings about dislike, displeasure and detestation for others. When one dislikes another, he begins to have hate in his heart for him. One should therefore, control his anger and be calm and composed at all times. In order to control one’s anger, he should (in the state of anger) recite frequently ‘Aouzu billahi minash Shaitanir Rajeem’ until the anger subsides.
Hate also comes on account of wrongdoings and injustice that was done to a person. In this case, a person should forgive the wrong doers so that hatred/rancor will not take root in his heart. It is about this, the Quran says, “Take to forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the ignorant. And if an evil suggestion comes to you from Satan, then seek refuge in Allah. Indeed, He is Hearing and Knowing”. (Surah Al Araf Verses 199,200)
In another place, the Quran says, “And not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel [evil] by that [deed] which is better; and thereupon the one whom between you and him is enmity [will become] as though he was a devoted friend. But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except one having a great portion [of good]. And if there comes to you from Satan an evil suggestion, then seek refuge in Allah. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing”. (Surah Ha Mim Verses 34-36)
With respect to ‘Hasad’ which means envy and jealousy, this is also a great vice which must be shunned by every Muslim. This is a very destructive sin which the Prophet (s.a.w) has warned about. In this regard, he said, ‘Avoid jealousy, for jealousy devours good deeds just as fire devours fuel. (Abu Dawood – Book on Al Adab – Chapter on Envy).
The cure for this vice is that one should think to himself that by being envious of another person, he is causing harm to himself while no harm is caused to the person envied. He should reflect on the hadith of the Prophet (s.a.w) which tells him that by being jealous of another person, the goodness given to that person will not disappear. Instead, the envious/jealous person will lose his good deeds by these being given to the envied one. In order to get rid of envy and jealousy, you should have good thoughts about the one you envy and say good things about him to others. You should make dua for him, and be happy with the good things the person has. Most of all, beg Allah to remove these vices from your heart, and engage in saying Astaghfirullah excessively.
And Allah Knows Best.
Mufti Wasem Khan.