Q: Can a person pray Jummah prayer before the Athan?
A: Assalaamu Alaikum
Athan is Sunnah Mu’akadah for the five times Salaah and also Juma. Many scholars have stated that it is wajib. It is therefore sinful to leave out the Athan before any of the five times Salah and Juma. (Raddul Muhtar Vol.1 pg 384. H.M Saeed Company Karachi). With this, it is understood that if Jummah is performed before the Athan (after the time for the Dhuhr Salaah has entered), it will be valid, but this act will be reprehensible to a great extent seeing that the Athan was not given before it.
In this case, those who performed the Jummah before the Athan will be considered as having opposed the Sunnah (the teachings of the Prophet (S.A.S) and will be sinful. (Al Bahr Ar Ra’iq Vol. 1 pg.255 Maktaba Rasheediya Queta Pakistan).
If the performance of the Jumah Salah before the Athan was on account of the fact that the time for Juma ( Dhuhr Salaah) did not enter, then in this case the Jummah will not be valid. In this regard, Allama Shami stated: “The entering of the time is a condition for the validity and soundness of Salaah” ( Raddul Muhtar Vol.1 pg. 370. H.M Saeed Company (Karachi).
And Allaah Knows Best
Mufti Waseem Khan