Assalaamu Alaikum Mufti,
My question is regarding the Sunnah wear of the Prophet ﷺ
I have heard many knowledgable people say, that the Jubbah, and I quote what they say-
“This is not the Sunnah of the Rasool صلى الله عليه و سلم. This is not what he used to wear. This is more CULTURAL than religious. These now a days Jubbah is not what he used to wear, instead this is more of a culture of the Arabs”.
Please clarify this matter
Wa Alaikum Assalaam,
Jubbah literally refers to a long outer garment, open in front, with wide sleeves that is worn over other clothing (Qamoos Al Fiqhiya Pg. 57).
Taking the above definition into consideration, we can see that this type of garment can be called a long coat or a cloak since a coat/cloak is what is normally worn over other clothing. This is not what the Prophet ﷺ used to wear, and it is also not what is generally called a Jubbah.
In common parlance, when Muslims speak about a ‘Jubbah’ (presently), they refer to a long shirt that reaches above the ankles. This is what is sold in many Islamic stores as a ‘Jubbah’, and also purchased by people, using the name ‘Jubbah’. In other words, today many people use the word Jubbah for the long shirt that they wear, whether it is on a daily basis, on Fridays or on the day of Eid. As for that which is a long outer garment, with an open front and wide sleeves, and is worn over other clothing (which in reality is a ‘jubbah’), many Muslims do not wear this and they do not refer to this as a jubbah.
Instead, this definition is more fitting for a ‘Bisht’ or ‘Aba’a’ which is a kind of cloak that is worn by the Arabs. This is worn over the wear which is commonly referred to as a jubbah by some people on the day of Eid. As I said before, this which is like the cloak and fulfils the literal definition of a ‘jubbah’ was not the Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ. It is from the Arab culture.
With respect to the clothing of the Prophet ﷺ and the garment which he used to wear, the traditions mention that he ﷺ used to wear a ‘Qamees’. In this regard, Umm Salmah (R.A) narrates that the clothing which was most beloved to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was a ‘Qamees’ (Tirmidhi; Shamaa’il Tirmidhi. Imam Tirmidhi says this hadith is Hasan (good). Allama Dhahabi says it is Saheeh, and Hakim says it is Saheeh also, in accordance to the conditions of Muslim – Mustadrak). Imam Abu Dawood and Nasa’i have also narrated this tradition. In the tradition of Ibn Majah, it is mentioned, ‘no other clothing was more beloved to the Prohet ﷺ then the Qamees.’
Umm Salma (R.A) also narrates that, ‘The Messenger of Allah preferred wearing the Qamees from among all clothing’ (Shamaa’il Tirmidhi).
With respect to what is a ‘Qamees’, the Arabic dictionaries have stated that it is a shirt, (long or short) or a gown. In the case of the Prophet ﷺ, he wore long shirts which reached above the ankles, and the sleeves reached to the wrist. This is evident from the narration of Abdullah Ibn Abbas (R.A) in which he states, ‘the Qamees of the Prophet ﷺ used to be above the ankles (i.e. not covering the ankles). (Mustadrak of Hakim. Both Hafiz Dhahabi and Hakim have stated that the hadith is Saheeh (sound).
While explaining the hadith, some Scholars have stated ‘being above the ankles also mean reaching half of the shin.’ In general, the hadith clearly shows that the Prophet’s Qamees used to be above the ankles. Anas (R.A) narrates that the sleeves of the Prophet’s Qamees used to reach to the wrists’ (Majma Az Zawaa’id).
From these traditions, it is established that the garment worn by the Prophet ﷺ was a ‘Qamees’ which was a long shirt reaching to above the ankles. It is also evident from the explainations given by some of the Scholars that the Qamees used to reach half of the shin.
Based on this practise of the Prophet ﷺ, the Sahabahs used to also wear long ‘Qamees’ (shirts) which reached above the ankles. In this regard, Muhammad Ibn Umair says ‘I saw Salim (the son of Ibn Umar) wearing his Qamees and it reached above the ankles, and he (Salim) said that Abdullah Ibn Umar (R.A) used to wear his Qamees in a similar manner (Ibn Abi Shaiba).
From the explainations of the ‘Qamees’ of the Prophet ﷺ, it becomes evident that now a days what is commonly referred to as a Jubbah falls into the description of the Qamees (long shirt) which reaches to just above the ankles (without covering the ankles), and this is what the Prophet ﷺ used to wear. In fact, as mentioned by Umm Salma, he loved this more than any other garment.
It is important to understand that though a ‘jubbah’ literally refers to a cloak/coat being an outer garment, worn over clothing with an open front, in common usage of the Muslims today, they use the word ‘jubbah’ to refer to the long ‘Qamees’ (shirt) which reaches to just above the ankles.
Now a days, the name ‘Jubbah’ is used to refer to this type of ‘Qamees’. Therefore, it is safe to say that what Muslims refer to as ‘Jubbah’ today, (being the long Qamees (shirt) of the Prophet ﷺ used to wear), it was his Sunnah and way of dressing.
And Allah Knows Best,
Mufti Waseem Khan.