Hadith in Bukhari states Iqamah is 1/2 of Azan, then why do we say it two times?
The Hadith in Sahih Al Bukhari states: from Imran bin Maisarah from Abdul Warith from Khalid Al Hazzaa from Abu Qilabah from Anas who said, ‘The people mentioned the fire and the bell and they mentioned the Jews and the Christians. Then Bilal (R.A.) was ordered to repeat the wording of the Azan twice, and to pronounce the wording of the Iqamah once. (Sahih Al Bukhari Chapter of How the Azan started)
Another hadith which Imam Bukhari mentions is, ‘From Muhammad Ibn Salaam from Abdul Wahab Ath Thaqafi from Khalid Al Hazzaa from Abu Qilabah from Anas who said, ‘when the number of people increased they discussed the question as how to know the time for the prayer by some familiar means. Some suggested that a fire be lit and others suggested a bell be rung. Bilal was then ordered to pronounce the words of the Azan twice and to pronounce the words of the Iqamah once’. (Al Bukhari – Chapter ‘ To repeat the words of Azan twice’).
Based on these traditions which have also been mentioned by other scholars of Ahadith, some scholars are of the opinion that the entire Iqamah should be pronounced once, including the words ‘Qad Qamatis Salaah’. In other words, these scholars do not accept that the words Qad Qamatis Salaah should be said twice. Their proof is that which have been mentioned in Sahih Al Bukhari (and other books) as narrated by Anas (R.A.) in the above tradition. Imam Malik has adopted this view.
Other scholars have differed from this opinion and have stated that the Iqamah should be pronounced once except the words ‘Qad Qamatis Salaah’, which should be said twice. Their argument is the tradition which is also recorded by Imam Bukhari and states, ‘From Sulaiman bin Harb From Hammad Bin Zaid from Simak Bin Atiyya from Ayub from Abu Qilabah from Anas who said that Bilal was ordered to repeat the words of the Azan twice and pronounce the words of the Iqamah once except Al Iqamah (i.e. Qad Qamatis Salaah). (Sahih Al Bukhari — Chapter to repeat the words of Azan twice).
Imam Bukhari has narrated the same with another sanad under the chapter, ‘To pronounce the words of Iqamah once except the statement Qad Qamatis Salaah’.
These traditions make it clear that the entire Iqamah should be called once except the words ‘Qad Qamatis Salaah’, which should be said twice. Hence, some scholars have adopted this as their practice and have differed from the first group. Imam Shafi has adopted this view.
Against both these opinions, there is another opinion which states that the words of the Iqamah should be pronounce twice in the same manner of the Azan with the inclusion of the statement Qad Qamatis Salaah, which must also be said twice. This opinion is also substantiated by valid proofs which are to be found in authentic and reliable traditions (Ahadith). From among these are:
1) From A’mash from Amr Bin Murrah from Abdur Rahman Bin Abi Laila who said that Abdullah bin Zaid (R.A.) saw a person (in his dream) who came from the sky, upon him were two green sheets. The man stood at the end of a wall and called out the Azan by pronouncing the words twice. He then sat and stood up and pronounced the words of the Iqamah in the same manner as the Azan. (i.e. calling its words twice). Abdullah bin Zaid (R.A.) then came to the Prophet (S.A) and informed him of what he saw. Upon this, the Prophet (S.A.S.) said, ‘how good is what you have seen! Teach it to Bilal’. (Recorded by Tahawi in Sharhul Ma’ani Al Athaar; Musnad of Imam Ahmad).
2) From Mas’oodi from Amr bin Murrah, from Abdur Rahman bin Abi Laila from Mu’az bin Jabal (R.A.) who said that Abdullah bin Zaid, an Ansari came to the Prophet (S.A.S.) and related the incident (of the angel’s words of Azan). He then pronounced the words of Azan (which he had seen in the dream) by repeating the words twice. After this, he paused for a while and then pronounced the words of the Iqamah just like the Azan, except that he added ‘Qad qamatis Salah, Qad Qamatis Salah’. Mu’az (R.A.) said, ‘upon this, the Prophet (S.A.S.) said, ‘Teach this to Bilal’. (Abu Dawood).
3) From Ibnul Muthanna from Muhammad bin Jafar from Sho’bah from Amr bin Murrah who said, I heard Ibn Abi Laila who said that the companions of the Messenger of Allah (S.A.S.) has narrated, that ‘a man from among the Ansaars came and then narrated the entire incident of the Azan where the Iqamah was called in the same manner of the Azan with the inclusion of Qad qamatis Salaah twice. (Abu Dawood).
4) From Hamam bin Yahya from A’mir Al Ahwal from Makhool that Abdullah bin Muhaireez narrated that Abu Mahzoora (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.S.) taught him the Iqamah which comprised of seventeen words (i.e. statement). (Seventeen words can only come about when the Iqamah is pronounced twice like the Azan, with the inclusion of Qad Qamatis Salah). (Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Tirmizi and Nasai have recorded a shorter version of it and Imam Tirmizi has stated that the Hadith is good and sound. Ibn Khuzaima has also recorded the above with the words that ‘the Prophet (S.A.S.) taught him to say the words of the Azan and Iqamah twice’).
5) From Ma’mar from Ibraheem from Aswad bin Yazeed that Bilal (R.A.) used to pronounce the words of the Azan twice and will also pronounce the words of the Iqamah twice. (Musannaf of Abdur Razzaq; Sharhul Ma’ani Al Athaar by Tahawi; Dar Qutni in his Sunan).
6) From Ziyad bin Abdullah Al Baka’ii from Idrees Al Awdi from Aun bin Abi Juhaifa from his father that Bilal (R.A) used to call the Azan for the Prophet (S.A.S.) by pronouncing the words twice and will also call the Iqamah for the Prophet (S.A.S.) by repeating the words twice. (Dar Qutni in his Sunan).
Based on the above traditions and narrations, which are all authentic and reliable, a number of scholars have stated that the Iqamah should be pronounced twice in the same manner of the Azan with the inclusion of the words ‘Qad qamatis Salah’ to be read twice. This opinion is held by Imam Abu Hanifa and the Scholars of Koofa. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal has given a choice to a person to either say it once or twice.
The Hadith recorded in Sahih Al Bukhari is that which Imam Bukhari has adopted as his practice and those traditions conform to his conditions for the acceptance of Ahadith, hence they are recorded in his compilation.
With respect to the other traditions (as quoted above), they are also strong, authentic and reliable and have been narrated by many companions and narrators. In fact, while the riwaayat of Imam Bukhari gives the act of Bilal (R.A) alone, the other narrations give the statements and actions of two Sahabahs (Companions) who were directly connected to the issue of Azan and Iqamah. On one hand, Abdullah bin Zaid was the Sahabi (Companion) who was fortunate to have seen the angel in his dream, pronouncing the Azan and Iqamah. The traditions state clearly that he learnt the words from the angel and when asked to utter the words, he pronounced the words of the Azan twice and he also pronounced the words of the Iqamah twice, while including Qad Qaamatis Salaah. Subsequently, he was ordered by the Prophet (S.A) to teach Bilal the Azan and Iqamah.
In addition to this, Abu Mahzoora was another young companion who was taught the Azan and Iqamah directly by the Prophet (S.A). The traditions quoted (before) show clearly that he also narrates that the Iqamah was pronounced twice in the same manner of the Azan. Besides these actions, it is also evident that Bilal (R.A), after the demise of the Prophet (S.A), used to pronounce the words of the Iqamah twice (Sharhul Ma’ani Al Athaar — Tahawi). In this respect Imam Tahawi has narrated that Ibraheem has narrated from Aswad from Bilal that he (Bilal) used to pronounce the words of the Azan twice and would also pronounce the words of the Iqamah twice. Imam Tahawi also narrates that Suwaid bin Ghafla said, ‘I heard Bilal pronouncing the words of the Azan twice and also pronouncing the words of the Iqamah twice’. It is also evident that companions of the Messenger of Allah (S.A) also pronounced the words of the Iqamah twice (in the same manner as the Azan). (Nasbur Ra’yah, Sharhul Ma’ani Al Athaar).
On account of these, it is clear that preference should be given to these actions above that of Anas’s statement which has been recorded by Imam Bukhari. However, seeing that all are evident from sound and reliable sources, they are accommodated in the teachings of Islam and are held as being permissible. It is simply a matter of preference.
And Allah knows best.
Mufti Waseem Khan