It is anticipated that this year’s Eid ul Fitr would fall on a Friday (Day of Jum’a). If this occurs, the question which will be asked is: “Do we still have to perform Jum’a?’ In this regard some statements have been made that Muslims do not have to perform Jum’a Salaah. However, according to the majority of scholars, Jum’a must be performed, which is in conformance to the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (SA).
The differences of opinion held by the Imams of Islamic Jurisprudence in this regard are as follows:
(1) Imam Ahmad holds the view that one has the choice to either perform Jum’a or not.
(2) Imam Shafie says that only the people from the far off villages are allowed to forego the Jum’a or to perform it as well.
(3) Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Maalik are of the opinion that whenever Eid and Jum’a fall on the same day then those who are entitled to observe the Jum’a Salaah must perform both i.e. the Eid prayers because it is a Sunna and Jum’a because it is Farz.
These differences amongst the Imams are supported by the following proofs:
(1) Imam Ahmad takes his proof from a Hadith mentioned by Ibn Majah and Abu Dawood, taken from Ibn Abbas (R.A) from the Prophet (SA) who said, “Two Eids have come together on your day today. Whosoever wishes let Eid suffice for his Jum’a (i.e. it is enough for him to perform Eid alone and to forego the Jum’a) but we would perform the both.”
The other scholars (i.e. Imam Shafie, Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik) take their proof from the following Ahaadith:
(1) Ibn Shihab mentions from Abu Ubaid who says, “I witnessed Eid with Uthman bin Affan. He came, performed the Salaah, gave the sermon and then said, “Certainly in your day today, two Eids have come together. Whosoever from the villagers wishes to wait for Jum’a let him wait. If he wishes to return then I have permitted him.” (Reported by Imam Maalik in his Muatta)
The same Sanad (narration) of this Hadith has been used by Imam Bukhari in, ‘The chapter of fasting on Eid day’ (which indicates to us that the Sanad used is authentic).
(2) Ibraheem bin Muhammad mentions from Ibraheem bin Uqba from Umar bin Abdul Aziz who said that two Eids came together (i.e. Jum’a and Eid on one day) during the time of the Prophet (SA). He, the Prophet then said, “Whosoever wishes to sit (and remain) from amongst the villagers, let him sit (and remain) without any harm”.
As mentioned by Imam Shafie, the Sanad (narration) is Hassan, Mursal. Ibraheem bin Uqba is from amongst the narrators of Saheeh Muslim and is authentic. Umar bin Abdul Aziz was the Ameerul Mumineen and a righteous Tabiee, his Mursal Hadith is therefore accepted by the scholars. This Mursal Hadith is also supported by another Hadith which is Marfu’ (Hadith traced back directly to the Prophet SA) and Mawsuul (Hadith with an uninterrupted narration), which also indicates that the concession to leave was specifically for the villagers. Both Marfu’ and Mawsuul Ahaadith are accepted and are very reliable according to all scholars of Hadith. This Hadith is narrated by Imam Baihaqi and taken from Sufyan bin Uyaina from Abdul Aziz bin Refai from Abu Salih from Abu Hurairah. According to the Usul of Hadith, whenever a Mursal Hadith is supported by a Mawsuul Hadith then it becomes a proof according to all scholars.
After looking at these traditions it can be clearly seen that the allowance to neglect Jum’a Salaah was not a general one, but was specific to a certain group of people for a certain reason. As such, those people upon whom Jum’a has become essential should not neglect their Jum’a Salaah.
The reasons for the establishing of Jum’a on the day of Eid are: –
(1) The establishment of Jum’a is evident from the Holy Quraan, which is the strongest source of proof in Shariah. A Hadith, which is termed Khabrul-Wahid, cannot change that law. (The Hadith which was used to allow leaving off Jum’a is Khabrul Wahid)
(2) Establishing of Jum’a is Farz while Eid is Sunna. A Sunna cannot be used to remove a Farz act.
(3) The Hadith reported by Ibn Maajah and Abu Dawood indicates to us that the addressees of the Prophet’s words “Whosoever amongst you” were ‘the villagers’. It is so because he further added, “But we would perform the both”. Here the “we” referred to the Prophet (SA) and the people of Madina.
(4) During the time of the Prophet (SA) and also after his time, people came from far off villages, especially for the Eid Salaah. When the day of Eid coincided with Jum’a it would have been very difficult for them to perform Jum’a because they would either have to remain from the morning until midday, or travel on their animals all the way back to their villages and upon arriving, start their journey returning for Jum’a. Recognizing this great difficulty upon them, the Prophet (SA) gave them the concession to leave after Eid Salaah if they wished to do so. However he informed them that he and the others would be performing the Jum’a by saying, “But we would perform the both.” One may ask, How is it that the Eid Salaah sufficed for their Jum’a even when it is known that Jum’a is Farz?
The answer to this objection is that Jum’a was not even Farz upon those people for two reasons:
(i) They were villagers
(ii) They were travellers.
(5) The action of Uthman was done in the presence of great companions of the Prophet (SA) and he was not condemned, criticized nor considered wrong or against the Sunna.
On this topic some scholars have mentioned three other Ahaadith, which according to them, gives some allowance for Jum’a to be neglected. These Ahaadith as well as a proper explanation of them are as follows:
(1) The first Hadith is from Zaid bin Arqam. Zaid was asked by Muawiyah, “Have you ever witnessed two Eids coming together (i.e. Eid and Jum’a) with the Messenger of Allah (SA)?” Zaid said, “Yes. He performed Eid at the beginning of the day and gave a concession for Jum’a by saying, “Whosoever wishes to join the both (i.e. perform Eid and Jum’a) let him join.” Reported by Ahmad, Abu Daud and Ibn Maj ah.
Allama Shawkani writes that this has also been mentioned by Nasai and Hakim and Ali bin Al Madini has considered it Saheeh. However in the Sanad there is Ayas bin Abi Ramla who is Majhuul (Unknown).
Explanation of 1st Hadith
The scholars have mentioned that this Hadith cannot be used as an evidence to neglect the Jum’a Salaah because Ayas bin Abi Ramla is unknown. Although some scholars have accepted him, others have written against him in the following manner: –
(i) The famous Muhadith Ibnul Munzir states, “This Hadith is not evident” because Ayas the narrator from Zaid bin Arqam is unknown.
(ii) Hafiz states in his book ‘Tahzeebut Tahzeeb’, “That only one person mentioned a Hadith from Ayas and he is Uthman bin Al Mughira Thaqafi.” The same is mentioned by Ibn Hiban.
(iii) Hafiz Zahabi in his book ‘Al Miizan’ has mentioned Ayas as unknown. The same is mentioned in At Taqreeb.
(iv) No other Raawi (narrator) has narrated any Hadith from him except Uthman bin Al Mughira.
(v) Besides this hadith no other Hadith is known from him.
Such cases as above makes a Raawi, ‘unknown’. According to the Usuul of the traditionists, “A Raawi cannot become accepted, except that for (at least) the minimum two authentic narrators, narrate from him. This has not been the case of the Hadith mentioned by Zaid bin Arqam. Therefore this Hadith remains weak because of the undisputable unknown Raawi. Such Hadith cannot influence a law which is established from the most authentic source (i.e. Jum’a from the Quraan).
(2) The second Hadith is mentioned from Abu Hurairah from the Prophet (SA) who said, “Certainly, two Eids have gathered on this day of yours, whosoever wishes, let Eid suffice for him for Jum’a, but we would be performing the both.” (Reported by Abu Daud and Ibn Majah)
Allama Shawkani writes that Hakim has also mentioned this Hadith. Ahmad bin Hanbal and Dar Qutni have considered its Mursal as Saheeh.
Explanation of 2nd Hadith
This Hadith is a Mursal Hadith, which is narrated by Baqiya from Shu’ba. In this Mursal Hadith it is mentioned that Abu Hurairah has narrated it, while in the version of Ibn Majah it is mentioned that Ibn Abbas narrated it. This is doubtful.
Even if this Hadith is accepted then it is very clear that those who were addressed by the Prophet (SA) as having a choice were the villagers. That which indicates to this understanding is the fact that the Prophet said to them “But we would perform the both”. The question is, ‘Who is this “we”?’ If the word “Whosoever” is general as it is taken by Allama Shawkani then, Who would the “we” refer to? Can the generality in “whosoever” and “we” refer to the same group of people? No! it cannot, for this is against Usool. It therefore means that “whosoever” referred to those villagers who travelled from far off villages to be present for the Eid Salaah. They were allowed to return for fear of hardship on them. The reason for it referring to them is the fact that the Prophet said, “But we would join the both.” This is plurality in the first person, meaning the people of Madina.
Leading us to this understanding also is the Mursal Hadith reported by Umar bin Abdul Aziz in which he states that; “Two Eids came together (i.e. Eid and Jum’a) on the same day during the time of the Prophet (SA). The Prophet then said, “Whosoever amongst the villagers wishes to sit (and remain) let him sit and remain without any harm.”
(3) The third Hadith, which is quoted by Allama Shawkani, is from Wahab bin Kaisan. He says that Jum’a and Eid came together on one day during the time of Ibn Zubair and he delayed coming out for Eid until the day reached high (it was close to midday). Then he came out and delivered the Khutba, then he performed Salaah, but he did not perform Salaah for the people on Jum’a day. Wahab says, “I mentioned this to Ibn Abbas, he (Ibn Abbas) said, “Ibn Zubair has done according to the Sunnah. (Abu Daud). In another narration reported by Abu Daud it states “He (Ibn Zubair) did not exceed upon the two Rakaahs until he performed Asr.”
Explanation of 3rd Hadith
The scholars state this incident cannot be used as an evidence because other companions and Tabi’ees besides Ibn Abbas did not approve of it, and as such a matter which is not known by the general Sahabahs and they have not given their approval cannot have consensus upon itself. It should be known that both Ibn Abbas and Ibn Zubair were young children during the time of the Prophet (SA). It is quite possible that they were aware of the statement ‘whosoever wishes amongst you’ and based their opinions upon it, not understanding who were the addressees of that statement.
Another important point to note here is that the above tradition in no way indicates to us that Jum’a was neglected. The reason is that it mentions that Ibn Zubair delivered the Khutba first and then performed Salaah which is the identical practice of Jum’a, for certainly it is known as a practice of the Prophet (SA) that for Eid, the Salaah is performed first then the Khutba is delivered. Therefore what Ibn Zubair did was that due to the occurrence of both Jum’a and Eid on the same day, he intentionally delayed Eid close to Zawal and combined the both by performing Jum’a before Zawal. Our proof of this also is the Riwayat of Abu Daud about the same incident mentioned by Ata bin Abi Ribah who says that, he (Ibn Zubair) joined the both and performed two Rakaahs.
Another argument is that according to the Riwayat of Abu Daud, which is also mentioned by Allama Shawkani it states ‘that he (Ibn Zubair) did not exceed upon the two Rakaahs until he performed Asr’. Now it is a very clear and known law that when one cannot perform Jum’a he must perform Zuhr Salaah, if it is understood that Ibn Zubair performed only Eid of two Rakaahs and did not perform Jum’a and the narrator is saying that the only other Salaah be performed after the two Rakaah is Salaatul Asr, then the question is, ‘Why didn’t Ibn Zubair perform his Zuhr Salaah?’ This objection on him would not remain if it is said that the two Rakaahs he performed was Jum’a and the only Salaah after Jum’a is Asr.
From these Ahaadith and explanations it is concluded that Jum’a Salaah on the day of Jum’a must be performed.
(i) If one’s objective is to follow the Sunnah or Hadith then the correct thing to do is to perform both the Eid and Jum’a, for the Prophet (SA) himself, performed the both.
(ii) There is no single clear tradition, which informs us of any general concession of foregoing Jum’a Salaah. On the other hand many traditions inform us that the concession was not general, it was specific to certain group of people.
Eid – ul – Fitr
Eid ul Fitr (Festival of the Breaking of the Fast) is the first day of the 10th lunar month, Shawwaal. It marks the end of the holy month of Ramadaan.
Eid ul Fitr is one of the two days of festivity in Islam. The other being Eid ul Adhaa. This has been established from an authentic Hadith narrated by Anas (RA) that upon arriving in Madinah, the Prophet (SA) found its people celebrating two days, which were upheld from the Days of Jaahiliya (Ignorance). The Prophet (SA) said: “When I came upon you, you had two days that you continued to celebrate from Jaahiliya, indeed Allah has substituted them for you with what is better, the Day of Sacrifice and the Day of Fitr.” [Ahmad, Abu Daud]
In another Hadith, the Prophet (SA) said referring to Eid ul Fitr: “Certainly for every community there is a day of Eid and this is our Eid”. [Agreed upon]
The word Eid literally means ‘recurrence’. Thus Eid is, an occasion, which returns and recurs at specified times with renewed happiness and joy. Muslims will return to the gathering of Eid with renewed zeal and enthusiasm and Allah returns to His servants with renewed bounties and rewards.
Even the nights, which precede the Days of Eid, have also been marked as a time of great virtue and the scholars have considered it Mustahab (desirable) to do lbaa-dah on these nights. Rasulullah (SA) said: “The heart of the person who remains awake (in lbaadah)- during the night of Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adhaa will not die on the Day when hearts will be dead, i. e. the Day of Qiyaamah ” [Tibrani]
The Day of Eid follows its night with the blessings, forgiveness and mercy of Allah to His servants who fasted during the day and who stood up at night in prayer. Allah rewards them immensely for having fulfilled their duties to him by adhering to restraint and guarding against evil; who endeavored in acts of piety and righteousness; who became engrossed in dua, dhikr and recitation of Quraan; who displayed kindness, love and compassion for others; who, in total, spent the month of Ramadaan seeking His pleasure.
The Day of Eid is also spent in thankfulness to Allah. Muslims will perform the Eid Salaah, which is Wajib (incumbent) and listen to the Khutba (sermon), which is Sunnah (commendable).
To give general charity on this day is commendable and rewarding. However Sadaqatul Fitr (Charity of Eid) is Waajib (incumbent) and must be given before the Eid Salaah. It is especially meant for the poor and the needy so that they too can celebrate Eid. It becomes binding to be given by all adults for themselves as well as all their dependents when one possesses wealth beyond his needs for the day.
Some Sunnah (commendable acts) for the Day of Eid are as follows:
To rise as early as possible;
To perform Ghusl (bath);
To use miswaak;
To apply ‘Itr (Halaal, non alcoholic perfume);
To wear ones best clothes;
To eat something sweet (such as dates) before departing for Eid Salaah;
To give Sadaqatul Fitr before leaving for the Musallah (Eid- Ghah or Masjid);
To walk to the Musallah. However, there is no harm in using any means of conveyance if the Musallah is a distance or there is an excuse;
To go to the Musallah using one route and to return by another route;
To recite the Takbeer while going to the Musallah.
The takbeer is:
Al-laa hu akbar, al-laa hu akbar,
Laa ilaaha il-lal-laa hu, wal-laa hu akbar, wa lil-laa hil hamd
‘Allah is the greatest, Allah is the greatest, There is no diety but Allah, Allah is the greatest, and to Him belongs all praise.’
The Day of Eid is indeed a joyous day and one should beware of his action not to displease Allah.
We should keep in mind some of the following actions:
To fast on this day is not permissible;
To perform any Nafl Salaah (optional prayer) before the Eid Salaah is not proper;
To intermingle with non-mahrams in actions like shaking hands, kissing, touching, flirting, looking with intent and lust, etc. are not permissible;
To dress against the dress code of the Shariah is not proper, like males wearing natural silk or gold or allowing their clothes to hang beyond the ankles, women exposing their hair, ears, wrist, ankle and other parts which are incumbent to be covered;
To partake of non-halaal foods and drinks as well as to engage in music and dancing are not permissible.
Muslims must remember that Allah has made the Day of Eid as a Day of Festivity and thankfulness. It is a special day for greeting and gift giving. It is also a day of fun and play for the young children and the elders should be visited showing to them love, honour and respect which they deserve. Believers must also remember the many lessons of Ramadaan, which have been learnt, and a firm resolve must be made to be steadfast. May Allah bless us with guidance and a joyous Eid. Aameen.
Fasts of Shawwaal
Fasting for six days in Shawwaal is a commendable act. The Prophet (SA) said, “Whoever fasts Ramadaan then add the fast of six days in the month of Shawwaal, will reap the reward of fasting for the whole year.” [Muslim]
This Hadith describes the great reward of the six fasts of this month. The scholars have interpreted this Hadith by saying that, according to the recognized rules of the Shariah every good deed done with sincerity of intention, is multiplied ten times, at least, more in reward than its origin. Therefore, the reward of 30 days of Ramadaan amounts to the reward of fasting 300 days.
If the fast of Ramadaan is followed by six more, then they will carry the reward of 60 days, amounting in total to 360 which is the number of days of one year according to the Islaamic Calendar.
Therefore, Muslims should take advantage of this opportunity to acquire such an enormous reward from Allah. It is preferable to start these fast from the 2nd of Shawwaal as the 1st is Eid and it is not permissible to fast on Eid, and keep fasting until the 7th of Shawwaal.
However if the fasts were kept on other days of the month it is proper and the reward would be the same.