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What is Taqleed? Why follow an Imam?

Taqleed literally means to follow, and according to the technical meaning used in the Shariah, it means ‘to follow someone in what he says, considering it to be the truth, without looking into the evidence for it’. (Baghwi)
Based on the above meaning, we find that in reality, all Muslims do Taqleed knowingly or unknowingly. The reason for this is clearly seen from the conduct of all Muslims. Almost all Muslims rely on one Scholar or the other. They take their advice and adopt their rulings. All these are done without even knowing the evidence for the ruling. Whether Muslims accept a particular Alim/Shaikh or another, they cannot escape the fact that they rely on the opinions of a person and accept it even though they are not aware of the evidences for the said opinions.

This act of following/ accepting a Scholar’s opinion can be more easily understood when we see that most of the Muslims are not Scholars of Islam nor have they studied any sort of Islamic teachings. Most of them are engrossed in their private jobs and occupation and spend absolutely no time in acquiring a sound Islamic education. Although some may be practicing Muslims, yet they do not get involved in formal studies. As such, we see that most of the Muslims are not aware of Hadith Studies, Quranic Studies, and Islamic Jurisprudence, etc.

However, notwithstanding their ignorance (of most of the Sciences of Islamic learning), they are nevertheless devout and practicing Muslims who continue to fulfil and abide by the teachings of Islam. This, they are able to do on account of their acceptance and adherence to the teachings given by scholars whom they have accepted as their Ulama. Hence, whenever they are confronted with any situation, they refer to their Scholars and do not question the authenticity and soundness of the opinions and advise which have been given.

Almost all Muslims in the world, Scholars and non Scholars find themselves in the above situation. As for the Muslim who is not a Scholar, he places his trust and reliance on a Scholar and then accepts his opinion, teachings, explanations and advice.

As for the Muslims who are Scholars, they are totally dependant on the Scholars of the earlier generations of the Salafus Saaliheen, for their understanding of the sciences of Islam. As a Scholar, one accepts their rulings, explanations and opinions and also gives his verdicts upon their statements. In this way, he (the Islamic Scholar) finds himself following other Scholars, and he knows to himself that he cannot escape this. As such, regardless of what one may say against Taqleed, he must also do it, since there is no other way of understanding the teachings of Islam except through the way of accepting and following the explanations given by the Salafus Saaliheen from among the Sahabahs, Tabi’uun and Tabut Tabieen.

It is on account of this reality, we find that even those who condemn Taqleed, are forced to quote statements of ‘Ibn Katheer,’ ‘Imam Bukhari’, ‘Imam Muslim’, ‘Ibn Taimiya’, ‘Ibn Qayyim’, ‘Imam Barbaharee’, ‘Imam Ahmad’, ‘Sheikh Albani’ etc, etc…

The mere fact that a person may quote any of the above name as a proof for what he says, shows that he is using the name (quoted) as an authority and evidence. It therefore means, that he relies and places his trust upon a certain Scholar and follows what he has said. In many cases, the one quoting such names (as a proof) do not understand or even investigate the evidence for such statements. Instead, he simply relies upon the name of the Scholar, accepting his opinion to be sound. This, in reality is Taqleed. It’s simply a matter of following someone who others are not following. Therefore, this act of condemning Taqleed is based on ignorance and arrogance, and out of mere obstinacy, for certainly, a person finds himself doing Taqleed and is totally dependant upon it.

From this explanation, it can be seen that basically, every Muslim does Taqleed. It is simply a matter of who he may choose to follow. There are some Muslims who may not adhere or adopt the Mazhab of Imams Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi or Ahmad bin Hambal, but yet, they adhere to the opinions and teachings of Hafiz Taimiya and Hafiz Qayyim. So in reality they are also doing Taqleed (following). Some may reject the practice of Taqleed, but yet, may listen and follow what a certain Sheikh may say or write. This itself is Taqleed and they are also involved in doing Taqleed even though they may not accept it.

Taqleed therefore, is one which is done by every Muslim and no one can escape it. It is not something which is newly invented, nor has it been condemned in Islam. Instead, it is one which is encouraged in Islam and the Holy Quran and the Sunnah bears ample testimony to this.

In this regard, Allah commands the Muslims in the following manner, ‘O those who believe! Obey Allah and obey His Messenger and those in authority over you’. (Quraan 4:59). Here (in this verse), Allah Has commanded the believers to obey Him. He has also commanded them to obey His Messenger, Muhammad (SA), and He has ordered them to obey those who are in authority. The verse makes it abundantly clear that all Muslims must be obedient to Allah, to His Messenger (SA) and to those who are in authority.

With respect to who are ‘Those in authority’, the great commentators of the Holy Quran from among the Sahabah, the Tabi’uun and those after them, have stated that ‘those in authority’ in this verse means the Fuqaha (the Jurists of Islam). This is the explanation given by Jabir bin Abdullah (RA), Abdullah bin Abbas (RA), Mujahid (RA), Ata bin Abi Rabah (RA), Ata bin Sa’ib (RA), Hassan Basri (RA), Abul Aliyah (RA) and many others from the Salafus Saaliheen (Pious Predecessors). (Tafseer ibn Jareer)

Based upon this explanation, it therefore means that Allah has issued a command in this verse of Sura An Nisa, informing the Muslims that they must obey the Fuqaha ‘Islamic Jurists’ who have been given a degree of authority over them. The reason for this command is quite clear, since the Fuqaha are those who have been endowed with the knowledge and the understanding of the religion of Allah (Al Islam).

As such, (with their understanding and knowledge) they are able, to teach and explain the laws of Islam. They are able to guide the Muslims with respect to halal and haram, and are able to issue verdicts on many matters. When this is done, it becomes imperative upon the Muslims to listen and obey them, and to follow their guidelines since it is all connected to Allah and His Messenger (SA).

It is for this reason, Allah has commanded the believers in the above mentioned verse to obey the Islamic Jurists, who, according to the commentators are the ones in authority. It should be noted that obedience comes about only by following, and there is no law mentioned in this verse which tells the Muslims that they must know the evidence for a certain issue before they obey. The verse, rather, is straight, explicit and simple, in that it commands the Muslims to obey those who are in authority (that is, the Fuqaha-Islamic Jurists).

In another verse, Allah says, ‘Ask those of knowledge, if you do not know’. (An Nahl: 43; Al Ambiya: 7) In this verse, Allah Has commanded those who do not possess knowledge to ask those who possess it. Obviously, asking is done in order to follow and obey. As such, when the Muslims seek advice or ask the religious Scholars questions, they are required to accept the answers and follow what have been told to them. So in reality, the act of asking questions brings about the act of ‘following’.

It is therefore clear from this verse, that Allah by commanding the believers to ask the Scholars (who are endowed with knowledge) of the things that they do not know about, is in reality ordering them to follow the Scholars in the answers they give.

So what is evident from these verses and explanations is that the act of following ‘scholars’ and ‘knowledgeable people’, (which in essence is the concept of Taqleed) is one which is not only encouraged in the Holy Quran, but it is also a requirement of a Muslim. It is for this reason, the scholars of the early and latter generations have all accepted Taqleed and have encouraged the Muslims to do Taqleed. In this regard, Hafiz Ibn Taimiya has written in his Fatawa that it is the agreement of the scholars that Ijtihaad (deductions) is permissible and Taqleed is permissible. Ijtihaad is permissible for that person who has the ability to do it and Taqleed is for that person who cannot do Ijtihaad’.

Allama Baghwi has also written, ‘It is essential for a person who does not possess the qualifications for Ijtihaad to do Taqleed’. The great scholar, Khateeb Al Baghdadi writes: ‘As far as the Islamic rules are concerned, there are two types. The first are those which are known by necessity to be a part of the Deen of the Prophet (SA) like Salaah, Zakaah, Fasting etc. Taqleed is not allowed in these issues since they are such that everyone should know and understand (that is, every Muslim is required to know that these are compulsory and hence, must obey the commandments of Allah). The second type are those rules which need to be understood and explained, such as the details of the rituals of worship, transactions, etc. Taqleed is allowed in these issues since Allah says, “Ask those of knowledge, if you do not know”. (Nahl verse 43)

Based on the above quotations, we see that the scholars have made two divisions. One is with respect to those who can do Ijtihaad, and the other is with respect to those who must do Taqleed. Ijtihaad, as explained by the pious predecessors, is the process of extracting laws from the four basic sources of the Shariah, namely, the Quran, the Sunnah, Ijma (Concensus of opinion) and Qiyas (analogy based on explicit rulings of the Quran and Sunnah). A Mujtahid is therefore a scholar who is qualified to do Ijtihaad.

As explained before, Taqleed technically means to accept the view of a Mujtahid in issues of Islamic law, without seeking to know the proof thereof, on the belief that the views are based on legitimate evidences of the Shariah. Thus, a Muqallid (follower) is one who ascribes to the Taqleed of a Mujtahid, because he lacks the qualifications to perform Ijtihaad.

It should be understood that ‘Following (making Taqleed) of an Imam or a Mujtahid does not entail believing the Mujtahid to be an independent source of law, who has to be followed in totality. Rather, the idea is that the Quran and Sunnah be followed as it is understood by the great scholars of the past, whose understanding, knowledge and authenticity has been accepted by the Ummah.

The Imam/Mujtahid whose opinion is followed is regarded as an interpreter and not a law maker. The only reason a person follows an Imam/Mujtahid is because of the conviction that the Mujtahid has great knowledge and understanding of the Quran and Sunnah, (which he, the follower does not possess) through which the Imam/Mujtahid is able to understand their meanings. In this regard, the follower has relied upon the Imam’s opinion/verdict/ruling.

Taqleed therefore, facilitates the following of the Quran and Sunnah. It is to be noted also that Taqleed existed during the time of the Sahabahs (RA) (Companions), where many of them would follow the most knowledgeable among them and adhere to his opinions, rulings and explanations. This act of following was so strong that they would not accept the opinions which contradicted the rulings/fatawas of that person whom they followed.

It is therefore clear, that ‘Taqleed’ conforms to the teachings of the Quran and the Sunnah and hence, has been encouraged by the scholars of the former and latter generations. While some have strongly encouraged the Muslims to do it, many great Scholars from the Salaafus Saliheen and the latter generations have stated that it is essential for Muslims to do Taqleed. This, they explain, is in order to protect one’s religion and to save one self from practicing upon the opinions of Scholars to one’s convenience. It is generally seen , that those who do not do Taqleed, ‘pick’ and ‘choose’ opinions (of Scholars) at random. Whatever suits their desires are normally adopted, without having any strong evidence to support (their actions). Sometimes an Imam’s/Scholar opinion is accepted in a certain issue, but the same Scholar/Imam is rejected in another issue.

Due to the fact that one is not disciplined in Knowledge, he finds himself roaming from one Scholar to the other, from one opinion to the other, until he finds that which is convenient and acceptable to him. It is strange to know that those guilty of these practices are not from among the learned, instead, they are those who have no formal Islamic education and are not even qualified to give an opinion in Shariah matters.

About this, the great Muhaddith Shah Waliyullah (RA) writes, ‘The Ummah has unanimously agreed upon the validity of following one of the four Schools of thought which has been organized and documented. There are many obvious benefits in this, especially today where determination has dwindled, where desires have penetrated our consciousness and gloating with one’s opinion is seen as a virtue’. (Al Insaaf)

About the attitude of those who continue to attack the following of an Imam/Mujtahid, thereby choosing opinions at random, the great Scholar of Hadith, Sheikh Siddiq Hassan writes, ‘There has arisen in this era, a party who do their actions for fame and to show others. They call themselves people of Hadith and Quran, and they claim to have perfect knowledge, actions and recognition of the Shariah.

So how strange is this! That they call themselves people of Tauheed, who are sincere, and brand others as Unbelievers and Mushrik, while they themselves are worst of all people, with respect to partisanship and the worst of all in exceeding the bounds of deen’. (Al Hittatu fi Zikr Sihah As Sittah pg. 67,68).

The great and renowned Scholar, Khateeb Al Baghdadi also writes, ‘As for those who should do Taqleed, they are those who do not know the methods of extracting Islamic rules. These people should follow one specific Imam and act upon his ruling. This is so because they do not posses the tools for Ijtihaad’. (Al Faqeeh Wal Mutafaqih).

WHILE PRAYING SALAATUL TASBEEH AND ZAWAAL COMES IN IS SALAAH VALID?

QUESTION:
ASSALAMOALIKUM
MUFTI SAHIB
I WILL WOULD LIKE TO KNOW IF SOMEONE IF PRAYING SALATUL TASBEEH AND ZAWAL TIME COMES IN,WILL HIS SALATUL TASBEEH BE VALID .
AND IF ZUHR STARTS AT 12 05 HOW MUCH MINUTES BEFORE AND AFTER ZAWAL TIME SHOULD BE OBSREVED BEFORE ZUHR TIME COMES IN.
WAS -SALAM
Answer:

Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
If someone is performing Salaatul Tasbeeh, and Zawaal time comes in (upon him) while he is still in Salaat, then his Salaah will be invalid (and broken).
Regarding this, the following is written in the famous book of Fiqh, Al Hidaya. It states:-
‘Salaah’ is not permissible at the time of the rising of the sun, at the time of Zawaal and at the time of the setting of the sun. This is based on the Hadith of Uqba bin Amir (RA) in which he said, ‘Three timings are such that the Prophet (SAS) has prohibited us from performing Salaah and burying our (dead) (that is, Salaatul Janaza) in them (i.e. in these three timings). These are, at the rising of the sun until it rises, and at Zawaal until the sun leans and moves (on one side) and when the sun sets.’ (Muslim) (Al Hidaya vol.1 pg. 82).
While commenting on the above text, many of the Fuqaha (jurists) have stated that the above prohibition includes the Farz Salaah and the Nafl (optional) Salaah. (Fathul Qadeer).
Based on this, it means that your Salaatul Tasbeeh will be invalid, and you will need to repeat it at a proper time.
If one wishes to perform optional Salaah before Zawaal, then he should stop a few minutes before the actual Zawaal time (say about 5 minutes). After Zawaal, a person should wait for about 5 minutes before he begins the Zuhr Salaah.

And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan
8/10/2011

When to perform sajda tilawah

Question:
Assalaamu Alaikum i would like to find out if u can read out the holy quran and then make the 14 sajad or when u reach each sajad u have to make it same time. Please explain in detail Jazakallah.

Answer:
Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
Making the Sajda of tilawah (Sajda of recitation )is Wajib when the relevant verses of Sajda are recited. The practice of the Prophet (SA) was that of making a Sajda when he recited the verse of Sajda, and this was the practice that became established as the Sunnah. However, seeing that delaying the Sajda is permissible, it means that if one makes the Sajda after the complete recitation of the Quran, it will be permissible when this was done outside Salaah. The best however, is that one should do the Sajda as soon as he recites the verse of Sajda.
If the verse of the Sajda was recited in Salaah, then one will have to perform the Sajda while in Salaah
And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan
17/08/2011

Salaatul Istikarah

Question:
Assalaamu Alaikum,
I would like to know how to pray Salaatul Istikarah? Please explain in detail. Also give the dua for it.

Answer:
Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
With respect to Salaatul Istikharah, it is important that one understands the concept of Istikharah and what it can be done for.
Istikharah means ‘seeking that which is good’ or ‘seeking that which is best’.
The underlying objective of Istikharah is that a servant should seek Allah’s guidance and goodness before undertaking any matter.
Istikharah (Salaatul Istikharah) should be done in such matters which are permissible and allowed in Islam. Its purpose is to remove doubt from one’s heart in doing a certain task. Hence, if one is doubtful in his mind about doing or ‘not doing’ an action from among two permissible actions, then he must do Salaatul Istikharah so that his doubt regarding one can be remove, and his heart can be firm upon the other one.
It should be noted that Istikharah cannot be done regarding matters that are unlawful in Islam. Similarly, Istikharah is not done in such matters which Allah Has made essential upon the Muslims. It is only done in permissible actions in which ‘doing it’ and ‘not doing it’ are both allowed in Islam.
Regarding Istikharah, the Prophet (SAS) is reported to have said, ‘When anyone of you intends to undertake an important affair then let him perform two rakaats (of optional Salaah), and then say,
‘ Allahumma Inni Astakheeruka be ilmika.
Wa As’aluka min Fadhlikal Azeem.
Fa innaka Taqdiru wa la Aqdiru.
Wa talamu wa laa A’lamu.
Wa anta Allaamul Ghuyub.
Allahumma in kunta Ta’lamu
Anna Hazal Amr khairun li fi Deeni
Wa Ma’ashi wa Aa qibati Amri.
Faqdir’hu li wa yassirhu li.
Thumma Barik li fihi.
Wa in kunta Ta’lamu
Anna Hazal Amr Sharrun li fi deeni
Wa Ma’aashi wa Aaqibiti amri.
Fasrifhu anni wasrifni anhu waqdir li Al khair haithu kana
Thumma Ardhini bihi.

MEANING: O Allah, I ask You the good through Your Knowledge and I ask You to grant me ability through Your Power and beg Your favour out of Your infinite bounty. For surely, You have power and I have none. You know all and I know not. You are the Knower of all that is hidden. O Allah, if, in Your knowledge, this matter be good for my faith, my livelihood and the consequences of my affairs in the world and the hereafter, then ordain it for me and make it easy for me and bless me therein. But if, in Your knowledge, this matter be bad for my faith, my livelihood and the consequences of my affairs in the world or the hereafter, then turn it away from me, and turn me away therefrom and ordain for me the good wherever it be and cause me to be pleased therewith.(Recorded by Bukhari).

It is mentioned that the above Salaah (2 rakaats) should be performed after the Isha Salaah. In the first rakaat, after Sura Faatiha, one should recite Sura Kafiroon and in the second rakaat, one should recite Sura Ikhlas.

After performing the Salaah, one should make the dua with full concentration and attention and place his request and need before Allah. In making this dua, it is not essential that one says it in the Arabic language. If it is difficult for one to say it in the Arabic, then one can say it in his own language.

After this, one should go to bed in a state of Tahara (purification such as being in the state of wuzu) and should turn towards the Qibla while sleeping. If one is reciting the dua in Arabic, then when he reaches the words “Haazal Amr’, he should make the intention of his need. If one is making the dua in English, then when he reaches the words ‘O Allah, if, in your knowledge, this matter be good for my faith’, he should make intention of his need. (That is, he must focus on the matter/need for which he is making Istikharah (in his mind and heart).

After making Salaatul Istikharah, it is not necessary that one gets a dream, as a guideline. It is also not necessary that if one gets a dream regarding the affair, it is on account of the Istikharah. This may not be so.
After making Istikharah, whatever matter the heart becomes firm on, or is satisfied upon, then one should chose that. It is possible that this firmness of the heart comes on account of a dream. One should continue to make Istikharah until his heart becomes settled on a matter. (Raddul Muhtar- Fatawa Haqaniya vol.3 pg.262; Kitabul Fatawa vol.2 pg.382).

And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan
5/10/2011

virtures of Surah Yaseen; and the permissiblity of zikr and reciting Darood

Question:
In trying to seek additional knowledge in my deen I often look at lectures on Youtube from various Scholars. Please find hereunder a link from one of the lectures with regards to the recitation of Surah Yaseen to derive certain benefits. Can you kindly advice me if this is authentic as many muslims including myself have been taught like the brother said to recite Surah Yaseen for various reasons and if this should not be done I would like to know please.
Also can you tell me the daleel in reciting Allah’s names a certain number of times again to derive certain benefits like saying Ya Wahab 1000 times for whatever needs you may have as Wahab means Bestower and other such names for different things.
In addition what is the daleel for reciting darood for certain benefits say like a 1000 times for increase in baraka.
Jazakallah

Answer:
Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
Sura Yaseen is a very blessed Sura which has many virtues and benefits in it. Some of these are:-
1) Maqal bin Yasar (RA) narrates that the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘Sura Yaseen is the heart of the Quran. Whoever recites it for the sake of Allah and for goodness in the hereafter, then he will be forgiven. Recite it upon your deceased ones’. (Recorded by Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Hibban who says it is Saheeh (Sound). Recorded also by Ahmad and Hakim who says it is Saheeh (Sound).
2) In the Hadith of Anas (RA), it is recorded that whoever recites it (Surah Yaseen) one time, it is like reciting the Quran ten times’. (Recorded by Tirmizi).
3) In the Hadeeth of Jundub (RA), it is narrated that whoever recites it at night, seeking Allah’s pleasure, then he will be forgiven’. (Recorded by Ibn Hibban and Ibn Sunni).
4) Abu Darda (RA) narrates that whoever recites Sura Yaseen close to a dying person, then his death will be an easy one. (Recorded by Ad-Dailami and Ibn Hibban)
5) Abdullah bin Zubair (RA) narrates that whoever recites Surah Yaseen for any specific need, then it shall be fulfilled’. (Tafseer Al Mazhari).
6) It is narrated in the tradition of Harith bin Abu Umama that whoever recites Surah Yaseen, then if he is in fear, he will gain peace and safety. If he is sick, he will be cured. If he is starved, Allah will nourish him’. (Ad-Daa’i wad Dawaa).
7) In the narration of Ata (RA), it is reported that the Prophet (SAS) said, ‘whoever recites Sura Yaseen at the beginning of the day, then he will be in ease and goodness until the evening. And whoever recites it in the evening, the he will be in ease and goodness until the next morning’. (Recorded by Ad Darimi with a Sound Sanad).

With respect to reciting Allah’s names to invoke His blessings and assistance, this is permissible. However, reciting a specific name for a fixed number of times (as you have mentioned) is not evident in traditions (according to what we have read). Nevertheless, they are not empty of blessings and good results. It is possible that such practices can be from among the experiences of pious scholars of the past. In a similar manner, there are many benefits in reciting different daroods which are recorded in authentic books. However, doing it in a manner which you have described, is not evident from the traditions (according to our knowledge).

And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan
04/10/2011

correcting a mistake while lead by an Imam

Question:
Salaams! How does one correct a mistake during fard Salaat with Jamaat? Eg. sitting in tashahood instead of rising in qiyam whilst in the first rakaat. Please verify.

Answer:
Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
If it is the Imaam who has made a mistake in the Salaat, then he must accept the correction given by the Muqtadi (when he hears Allahu Akbar or Subhaanallah from the Muqtadi). He will then go to the correct position and then make the two Sajdah of forgetfulness at the end of the Salaat.
If it is the Muqtadi who makes the mistake while performing Salaat behind the Imaam, then he would simply continue to follow the Imam in all his actions. The Muqtadi is not allowed to make the 2 extra Sajda of forgetfulness (on his own without his Imaam).
If he does this, then he will be opposing the Imam which is not allowed.
And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan
03/10/2011

Hadith One

The Prophet (SAW) said: ‘The example of guidance and knowledge with which Allah has sent to me is like abundant rain falling on the earth’ (Bukhari).

‘There is no worse calamity for knowledge and its people than when outsiders intrude. They are ignorant, but presume to know. They cause trouble, yet think that they are helping.’ (Imam Ibn Hazm (AR).

The Concept of Hazir and Nazir for the Prophet (S.A.)

Is the Prophet (S.A.) Hazir and Nazir?
The following is an article which was sent to the Darul Ifta (Darul Uloom Trinidad and Tobago) for a response.

Here, we present to you an answer to this article, but before doing so, we will place the article entitled ‘Hazir and Nazir’ first, and then the response will be placed after.

Darul Ifta.

THE CONCEPT OF “HAAZIR AND NAAZIR” USED FOR RASOOLULLAH (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM)

Some people believe that Allah Ta’ala is “Omnipresent”, that is, Allah Ta’ala is Present and Over-looking at every time and at every place. They believe Allah Ta’ala to be “Haazir” and “Naazir”. This is not true, as Allah Ta’ala is not bound by time and space. Allah Ta’ala is Present and Seeing from eternity without time and without space.

Allah Ta’ala’s Attributes, namely, Life, Knowledge, Power and Speech, are without time and without place, so are Allah Ta’ala’s other attributes. Allah Ta’ala’s Attributes always exists and will continue to exist till eternity. There is a great difference between Allah Ta’ala being Present and the souls of His creation being present. No one is present like Allah Ta’ala being Present.

The Angels, the souls of Prophets, the souls of the Awliya Allah and the souls of pious Muslims are present at any place where they are called. They were non-existent, before being present. They will seize to exist after a while. The souls of the creation were absent before it became present there, and will be absent some time later. The presence of the souls is with time and with place. Now that we have explained the concept of Allah Ta’ala being Present and clarified our position with regards to the station of the souls in this respect, we will explain the concept of Haazir (present) and Naazir (over-looking) of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).It is the belief of the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jama’at that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is given power by Allah Ta’ala to be Haazir and Naazir.

Some persons say that the Ahle Sunnat Wa Jamaat believes that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is present like Allah Ta’ala is Present. This is totally false because the Ahle Sunnah Wal Jama’at does not have such a belief. The Ulema have used the words “Haazir-o-Naazir” for Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran: “How then if I brought from each people a Witness and brought you (O Muhammad) as a Witness against these people”. (Sura al-Nisa: 41) This proves that each Prophet is a Witness for his Ummah, for those who accept Allah Ta’ala and those who reject Him. It also proves that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) was present before each Ummah, witnessing their deeds.

On the Day of Qiyamah, when they will be questioned about their deeds, they will deny it. Then, Allah Ta’ala will bring the Final Messenger (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as a Witness and he will testify because he was present there when they were practising evil. Imam Khaazin (radi Allahu anhu) states, “To be a witness means to be ‘Haazir’ or present.” (Tafseer Khaazin)

Sayyiduna Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Delwi (radi Allah anhu) writes: “Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is Haazir-o-Naazir on the deeds of his Ummah”. (Haashiya Akhbarul Akhyaar)

Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran: “O Prophet! Truly, We have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings, and a Warner”. (Sura al-Ahzab: 45) Here Allah Ta’ala says that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is a witness sent by Him concerning men’s doings and how they receive Allah Ta’ala’s Message. In order to give evidence, a witness has to be present and watching. Even in the Court of Law, a witness is asked, “Did you see the incident taking place?”Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran: “And the Apostle is a Witness over yourselves.” (Sura al-Baqarah: 144)

Commenting on this Ayah, Sayyiduna Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi (alaihir rahmah) writes: “The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is observing everybody, knows their good and bad deeds, and knows the strength of Imaan of every individual Muslim and what has hindered his spiritual progress.” (Tafsir Azizi)

Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran: “And keep thy soul content with those who call on their Lord morning and evening, seeking His face and let not thine eyes pass beyond them.” (Sura Kahaf: 28) In this verse Allah Ta’ala is asking Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) to keep a close watch on those people who seek Him. He is asked to observe them day and night. Note that no limitation has been imposed – “observe them during your life and after you assume a veil of departure”. This is another proof that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is watching us 24 hours a day!

Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran: “The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is closer to the Believers than their own selves”. (Sura al-Ahzab: 6) Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is with every Muslim. (N.B. Not every Muslim, but every “Mu’min” among the Muslims). That is the reason why the non-Mu’mins feel that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah – sallal laahu alaihi wasallam – is far from them. But it is they who are far from the beloved of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is closer to them than they are to their own selves, irrespective of time and place. He is witnessing their deeds. Allah Ta’ala gives this power to him.

It is reported by Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar (radi Allahu anhuma) that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Indeed this entire world is in front of me so that I can observe everything in it. I can see everything in this world and everything that will take place till the Day of Qiyamah. I see the entire world as I see the palm of my hand”. (Mawahib-e-Ladunnia) This Hadith Shareef substantiates the belief of the Ahle Sunnah that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is Haazir and Naazir.

Sayyiduna Qazi Abu Iyaaz (alaihir rahmah) writes in his “Shifa” that Sayyiduna Amr bin Dinar (radi Allahu anhu), a Taba’in and Faqih of Makkatul Mukarramah, said: “If you enter a house and find that there is nobody there, say ‘May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)'”. Writing a commentary on this Hadith Shareef, Sayyiduna Mulla Ali Qari (alaihir rahmah) says: “This is so because the soul of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is present in every Muslim home”.

Sayyiduna Ali Hameed Saaidi (radi Allahu anhu) has reported that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “If any of you enters the Mosque, send Salaams to me, followed by this Du’a: ‘O Allah! Open your Door of Blessing for me'”. (Abu Dawud, Ibne Majah, Baihaqi) This Hadith proves that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is present in every Mosque of this world and according to Islam, the entire earth is a Mosque for the Muslims, as reported by Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah (radi Allahu anhu) that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “The entire earth has been made a Mosque for me”. (Bukhari Shareef) Thus, the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is present everywhere on earth!

The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has stated, “Whosoever sees me in his dream then he will soon see me while awake.” (Bukhari Shareef; Abu Dawood) Commentating on this Hadith, Sayyiduna Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhadith Delhwi (alaihir rahmah) says: “This is glad tidings for those who see the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in their dreams that after arriving from the darkness of the Nafs and the completion of the desires of the body they have reached this stage that in reality, without any veil in the condition of awakeness they will have this opportunity of seeing him just like the Awliyah Allah who see him while awake. In this text, this Hadith proves that it is possible and proper to see the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) while awake.” (Ash Atul Lam’aat)

The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I have been sent towards all the creation of Almighty Allah.” (Sahih Muslim Shareef; Mishkaat Shareef) This Hadith Shareef proves that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is being a witness for those towards whom he was sent as a Prophet.

It is written in an authentic Kitaab: “Even due to much objections and differences in the opinions of the Ulema, one does not have any doubt in this case that without any doubt and illusion, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is continuously alive and he is Haazir and Naazir in the A’mal of his Ummat and he gives his mercy towards those who turns towards him and he guides them.” (Maktoobat Shareef bar Haashia Akhbaarul Akhyaar Shareef)

Hazrat Haji Imdaadullah Muhaajir Makki (alaihir rahmah) writes: “Our Ulema fight in the issue of Meelad Shareef. The Ulema believed in its permissibility as well. When the side of permissibility exists, why then is there so much hardness on this issue? For us, it is sufficient to follow the people of Haramain (Makkah and Medina). At the time of Qiyaam one should not have the belief of Tawallud (that Rasoolullah – sallal laahu alaihi wasallam – is born now). The possibility of the arrival of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in the Meelad assembly is not wrong because the bodily world is restricted to time and place, but the spiritual world is free from both. So the arrival of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is not far from being possible”. (Shamaime Imdaadiya)

Imam Ahle Sunnat, Hazrat Sayed Ahmed Sa’eed Qazmi (alaihir rahmah) states: “When the word Haazir-o-Naazir is used for Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), it does not mean that the physical body of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is everywhere and that he is present in front of everybody. This in fact means that as the soul exists in every part of the body similarly the light filled reality of the Soul of both the worlds (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) exist in every atom of the worlds. Based on that Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) arrives with his spirituality and lightfulness in many places at one time. Many times, the Pious observe the beauty of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in a state of wakefulness with their physical eyes”. (Taskeenul Khawatir fi Mas’alatil Haazir wan Naazir)

Thus we have learnt that Sayyiduna Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), through the Light (Noor) of his Prophethood, knows the faith of every faithful and the degree of his Imaan and also the obstacles which stand in the way of a faithful’s spiritual advancement. The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) knows our sins, and our spiritual status, and our good and bad deeds, and our sincerity and hypocrisy. His witness is the most acceptable in favour of his Ummah.

The Soul of Sayyiduna Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) observes all the souls and living beings. The deeds of the Ummah are presented to Sayyiduna Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) every morning and every evening and the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) recognizes (each member) of his Ummah through their actions, and hence, he would be a witness for them. Sayyiduna Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is a witness for the Believers over their faith, for the non-Believers over their apostasy and for the hypocrites over their dual character.

There are some mislead individuals who feel it appropriate to believe that Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has been restricted to his Blessed Grave till the Day of Qiyamah and that it is out of his reach to travel wherever he pleases and to make himself present wherever he pleases.

Allah Ta’ala sent all the Prophets to our Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) on the Mi’raj night. He became the Imaam, and they performed two rak’ahs of Salaah. It is thus seen that all the Prophets (alaihimus salaam) made Haaziri (were present) in Musjid al-Aqsa to perform Salaah with our Noble Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) being the Imaam. If Prophets cannot leave their Blessed Graves then how is it that all of the Prophets (alaihimus salaam) were present in Musjid al-Aqsa, on the blessed night of Mi’raj an-Nabi which occured long after the Wisaal of the other Prophets.

Shaikh Abd al-Haqq Muhaddith Dehlwi (alaihir rahmah) states: “Allah Ta’ala has given the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) the strength and power to go anywhere he likes, he can go with his own body or only in soul. On the earth, in the sky, in the grave and the Holy Prophet’s (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) connection stays with his own shrine.” (Madarijun Nabuwat)

Imam Jalaaluddeen as-Suyuti (alaihir rahmah) says, “To keep watch of his own followers’ work and to pray for their forgiveness; to pray for their abstention from bad deeds; to come and go in all parts of the world to give auspiciousness; if one pious person dies from his followers then to come and attend his Janazah (funeral), all this is done by the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)”. (Intibahul Azkiyya)

It is recorded that at the time of the call to prayer (Adhan) the Shaitaan runs thirty-six miles away and returns in an instant after the completion of the Adhan. (Mishkaat) How can it be, that Allah Ta’ala’s Beloved, Huzoor-e-Aqdas Muhammad Mustafa (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is confined to his Blessed Grave while Shaitaan is freely running up and down, and that too, at high speeds!

Besides Shaitaan, even Angels have this ability. The Holy Qur’aan says: “…when death comes to any of you, Our Angels take his soul and they do not fail ” (Surah al-Anaam: 61). Relating to this it is written that, “For the Angel of Death the whole of the Earth is like a tray, so that he may take the souls as he pleases. There is no difficulty for the Angel of Death to take souls, even though there are many and at many different places !” (Tafseer Kabir Khazeen; Ruh-ul-Bayaan)The speed of Jibra’eel (alaihis salaam) is such that, when Nabi Yusuf (alaihis salaam) was thrown into the well, Jibra’eel (alaihis salaam) travelled from Sidratul Muntaha to the bottom of the well. When Nabi Ibraheem (alaihis salaam) was about to sacrifice Nabi Ismail (alaihis salaam) and had his knife on the neck of Nabi Ismail (alaihis salaam), Jibra’eel (alaihis salaam), travelled from Sidratul Muntaha to the earth with a Ram.

The above events relate to an Angel and it’s abilities, but men of Allah (Awliya Allah) are also imbued with such powers. Asaf ibn Barkhiya’s taking the throne of Bilqis (the Queen of Sheba) to Sayyiduna Sulaiman (alaihis salaam) is also reported in the Holy Quran, Surah Naml, Verses 39 and 40.

It is written in the book “Wahhabiyya”: “Tayy al-masaafa, that is, traversing long distances in a moment, is a Karaama (miracle) bestowed upon Awliya’. It is Waajib to believe in this.”

Ibn Hajar al-Haitami (alaihir rahmah) wrote in his Fatawa: “The number of those who said that if a Wali (saint) goes to a very distant place in the West (in a short time) after he has performed the evening Salaat and if the sun has not set there yet, he need not perform the evening Salaat for the second time at that place, are many.” Concerning the questioning (of the dead person) in the grave, the third question that will be asked by the Angels of the grave is, “Ma kunta taqulu fi haqqi hazar rajul” (meaning: “What did you have to say about this person?” (i.e. the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) When this question is asked the veil is removed from the dead person’s eyes so that he can see the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) who will be present (Haazir) in the grave. (Mishkaat Shareef; Bukhaari)

From this Hadith we learn that the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is seen by the dead in person and not in some sort of mental thought, because the word “rajul” that is used in the question, in Arabic grammar refers to a real person made of flesh and bones. So it is established that every person that dies sees the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) in his grave in person. Now, at any given time thousands of people around the world are buried and all these people see the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) at the same time and are asked the same question. This is ample proof that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) by the Grace of Allah Ta’ala can present himself in many places at the same time. All the ‘Ulama of Ahl as-Sunna agree with this.

REFUTATION OF THE HAZIR/NAZIR ARTICLE

The term ‘Hazir and Nazir’ for the Prophet Muhammad (S.A) and its concept, is one which is newly invented in the matter of Islamic beliefs (Aqeedah). It has never been used by the Sahabahs, the Tabieen and Tabut-Tabieen nor has it been used by those after these generations. Hence, it is a term used for the Prophet (S.A), which in reality, has no evidence in the Sacred Shariah.

With respect to the meaning and implication of this term, this is also a concocted one which never existed in Islam. As explained by the writer of the article, ‘hazir and nazir’ implies ‘that the Prophet (S.A) is present everywhere and sees everything in the world. He is fully aware of the incidents that take place in the world and he hears and sees everyone’.

This belief is a deviated one which is nothing but shirk, and it does not befit a Muslim to have such beliefs. In fact, this is attributed to a deviated sect who innovated many strange beliefs and acts in Islam.

To say that this is the belief of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah (as stated by the writer), is nothing but falsehood and a manifest lie. From the time of the Prophet (S.A) until the latter generation of Muslims, no one from among the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah had this belief. The Prophet (S.A) himself never entertained such a belief. The Quran also did not indicate to this type of belief, and hence, the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah never propagated or even had such a belief. It is for this reason, one will see that not a single book written on the topic of Aqeedah has highlighted this belief.

In this regard, the great scholar and jurist, Imam Tahawi, has written in his famous book ‘Al Aqeedatu At Tahawiyah’ (which has been written expounding the beliefs of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah):- ‘and Verily Muhammad (S.A) is Allah’s most exalted servant, His chosen Prophet and His beloved messenger. And he is the seal of all Prophets, the leader of the pious and the most honoured of the messengers. He is the beloved of the lord of the worlds. Every claim of Prophethood after him is falsehood and deviation. He has been sent to all the Jinns and the entire mankind with truth and guidance and with light and illumination’. (Al Aqeedatu At Tahawiya).

All the above are clear and direct teachings from the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Prophet (S.A). It is that which the Sahabah held on to, and what the pious predecessors adopted as their beliefs. Hence, these are from among the true teachings of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.

With respect to that which has been written in the article, there are many statements that are mistranslated, misunderstood and fabricated. The quotations of some of the great scholars have been mentioned, yet, these very scholars do not subscribe to that which the writer has attributed to them. Hence, it is not only a misuse of these statements, but they also have been taken out of context.

In using Tafseer commentaries, the writer has also given his own translation and interpretation of what has been written in the original Arabic text. Ahadith have also been wrongfully translated in order that it be used as an evidence for the concocted belief of the writer. An example of the misguiding statements of the writer, is the following:

He has quoted that the Holy Prophet (S.A) said, ‘Whosoever sees me in his dream, then he will soon see me while awake’. Having quoted this, the author states that ‘this shows that it is possible to see the Prophet while awake’. This tradition has been recorded by Imam Bukhari under ‘Kitabur Rayah’ (the Book of Interpretation of dreams), however the reliable, authentic and reliable commentators of Sahih Al Bukhari have not given the explaination as that given by the writer. While explaining the hadith in question, the great commenter of Sahih Al Bukhari, Shaikhul Islam Allama Hafiz Badruddeen Aini (Died 855 AH) writes, ‘Whoever sees me in a dream then he shall soon see me in wakefulness, refers to people of the Prophet’s time. In this statement, the Prophet(S.A) gave glad tidings to the people living at his time who did not meet him as yet saying, whoever saw him in a dream, then Allah will grant that person the ability to migrate towards him and to meet him’. Hafiz Aini continues by saying, It may also mean that whoever sees the Prophet (S.A) in a dream, then he will get the opportunity to actually meet the Prophet (S.A) in the hereafter (this will be in a state of wakefulness and not sleep).’ This meeting in the hereafter will be a special one and it will not be in the same manner of the other believers. Instead, it will be on account of being specially close to the Prophet (S.A) to the extent of being honoured to get his intercession. (Umdatul Qaari Vol. 24 Pg.140).

What is worthy of attention here, is that Hafiz Badruddeen Aini is known to be one of the greatest Muhadith and Faqeeh of his time. He was one of the greatest scholars from among the Ahlus Sunnah who had written a great amount of books on almost every science of Islamic leaning. Yet, with this great knowledge and understanding, he did not say anything close to the statement of our dear brother that the hadith means ‘that a person will be able to see the Prophet (S.A) physically, while in a wakeful state’. Hafiz Badruddeen Aini has further mentioned that in the narration of Imam Muslim (in his Saheeh) the words of the hadith are, ‘whoever sees me in a dream it is as though he has seen me in a state of wakefulness’. (Umdatul Qaari Vol.24 pg.140)

The other great commentator of Saheeh Al Bukhari, Al Imam Al Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani (died 852 AH) has also given a detailed explaination of this hadith in his book ‘Fathul Baari’. On this topic he writes, ‘The great scholar Ibn At Teen (A.R) writes, ‘(the statement of the hadith, ‘he will soon see me in a state of wakefulness means), that it refers to those who believed in the Prophet (S.A) during his lifetime and did not see him, since they were absent/far away from him ( like the Muslims of Madina and other tribes who accepted Islam from other Sahabahs, and they did not meet/see the Prophet (S.A) as yet.). This statement of the Prophet (S.A) therefore, was a glad tiding to them, that they will surely get the opportunity to meet/see him before he passes away’. (Fathul Baari Vol.12 Pg.476).

Hafiz Ibn Hajar further gives the explaination of the famous and well accepted scholar Allama Maziri (R.A). He (Allama Maziri) writes that the hadith of, ‘seeing the Prophet (S.A) in the state of wakefulness has one of two possible meanings. The first meaning is based on what is authentically reported by Imam Muslim in his Saheeh, which states that the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘Whoever sees me in a dream, it is as though he has seen me in the state of wakefulness. In this regard, the understanding of the hadith will be based upon the literal meaning of the hadith which means that seeing the Prophet (S.A) in a dream indicates to the fact that the dream is true and it is as though a person has seen the Prophet (S.A) while being awake. The hadith therefore, shows no indication to the understanding that a person will actually see the Prophet (S.A) while he is awake in the future.

This will be the understanding of the hadith when the tradition of Imam Muslim is used to explain this hadith of Imam Bukhari. If the tradition of Imam Muslim is not adopted, then the meaning of the hadith (which is the second possible meaning) is that the Prophet (S.A) (in his statement) referred to people of his time from among those who will migrate towards him. In this hadith, the Prophet (S.A) mentioned that seeing him in a dream, was a sign to show that the person who had this dream will eventually meet him in his lifetime’. (Fathul Baari Vol.12 pg. 476).

While explaining this hadith, the well known scholar, Qadhi Ayaaz said, ‘it is stated that the meaning of the hadith of seeing the Prophet (S.A) in the state of wakefulness means ‘seeing the interpretation of that dream in the state of wakefulness, and seeing that it was a true dream. It is also stated that it means one will be honoured to see and meet the Prophet (S.A) in the hereafter’. (Fathul Baari Vol.12 pg. 476).

Hafiz Ibn Hajar has given all these explanations of some of the greatest scholars of the past. However, as we have seen, none of them has inferred from the hadith that one will actually see the Prophet (S.A) physically while being awake. In fact, while refuting this understanding, Hafiz Ibn Hajar wrote ‘This (making this claim and drawing this meaning from the hadith) is very difficult. If this is taken in its literal understanding, then it means that all those who have seen the Prophet (S.A) in the wakeful state have become ‘Sahabahs’, and then it will be possible to have ‘companionship’(to be from among the sahabahs ) until the Day of Judgment. (Since a Sahabi (companion) is one who has seen the Prophet (S.A) while being awake in the state of Iman)’.

Hafiz Ibn Hajar then states, “This understanding is unsound and clouded, since a great amount of people have seen the Prophet (S.A) in their dreams, however, they have not mentioned that they have seen him in their wakeful state. These are true statements which cannot be rejected. (Fathul Baari Vol.12 pg. 476).

Hafiz Ibn Hajar has also quoted the statement of Imam Qurtubi in which he (Imam Qurtubi) has refuted the statement of those who say that ‘one can see the Prophet (S.A) himself in a state of wakefulness’. While refuting this notion, Imam Qurtubi writes, ‘This sort of belief necessitates that two persons will not be able to see the Prophet (S.A) at one time at two different places. This belief also requires that the Prophet (S.A) must come out from his grave, walk through the land and speak to the people. It also brings about the fact that when he is out meeting people, his grave will be empty of his body/soul, hence, he will not be in his grave. Taking this into consideration, it means that daily, when thousands of people visit his blessed grave and give Salaams, they will, in reality be visiting an empty grave and will be conveying Salaams to an empty grave’.(Fathul Bari Vol.12 pg.475).

After showing the deviated understanding which comes about due to such beliefs, Imam Qurtubi gives the Islamic position on these thoughts and says, ‘These are all statements and thoughts based on sheer ignorance, and no one with the least amount of intelligence will ever pay attention or adhere to them. (Fathul Baari vol.12 pg.475 – Chapter on the ‘Book of interpretation of dreams’).

Further to this, it must be asked, if a person is able to see the Prophet (S.A) in the state of wakefulness, then is he seeing the body of the Prophet (S.A)? Or is he seeing the soul? Or is he seeing both the body and the soul? Or is it simply a vision of the Prophet (S.A)? If the third be the case as the writer will have people believe, then surely, the blessed grave of the Prophet (S.A) will be empty when people are making Ziyaarah (visiting) his grave. This however, will be in total contradiction to the beliefs of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah with respect to where the Prophet (S.A) is? Most assuredly, no one from among the Sahabahs, the Tabieen and Tab’ut Tabieen had such a deviated belief.

So here is a clear case of misguidance caused by the writer, where he has actually invented his own explaination of the words of the Prophet (S.A) and has not given the correct and sound interpretation of the hadith as given by the great traditionists .This act of the writer is a grave sin, and about him and others like him, the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘Whoever lies upon me intentionally, let him make his abode in the fire of hell’. (Bukhari)

Look at the ignorance of the writer when he says, ‘The Holy Prophet (S.A.S) said, ‘I have been sent towards all the creation of Almighty Allah’ (Sahih Muslim, Mishkat). Having quoted this tradition, the writer ignorantly gives his own opinion by saying ‘This hadith shareef proves that the Prophet (S.A) is being a witness for those towards whom he was sent as a Prophet’. I am amazed and astonished at the ignorance of this writer who continues to fabricate his own explanations and then attribute it to a hadith. In the tradition, there is absolutely no indication to what the writer has deduced, and none of the commentators of Ahadith has given such an explaination. Instead, they have all stated that the hadith means that the Prophet (S.A) was sent as a mercy to the whole world and not that he is a witness or he is watching all those people, to whom he was sent.

In another place, the writer gives another one of his misguided and deviated explanations. He writes: ‘Allah Ta’ala states in the Quran, ‘The Prophet (S.A) is closer to the believers than their own selves’ (Surah Al Ahzab: 6)’. Having quoted the Quranic verse, the writer gives his own concocted explanation by saying, ‘Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (S.A) is with every Muslim. He is witnessing their deeds. (Article Hazir and Nazir).

This sort of fabrication cannot be found in the writings of any of the great, reliable and authentic commentators and exegetes of the Holy Quran.

The true and authentic explanation of the verse is given by the commentators who stated that the verse ‘The Prophet (S.A) is closer to the believers’ means ‘The Prophet is dearer and more beloved to the believers than their own selves’. This is the explanation which has been given by the greatest and most reliable commentators of the Holy Quran such as Hafiz Ibn Katheer, Ibn Jareer, Ibn Abi Hatim and Imam Qurtubi.

While commenting on the above mentioned verse of Sura Ahzab (i.e. verse 6), Hafiz Ibn Katheer has recorded several traditions which show that the meaning and message of the verse is that the Prophet is more beloved and dear to all believers than their own selves. Hence, they have to prefer him above themselves, their family members and all others in the matter of obedience to him, following him and their love for him. From among the traditions which Hafiz Ibn Katheer has quoted to explain the verse are:

1) Umar (R.A) once said to the Prophet (S.A), ‘O Prophet of Allah! By Allah, you are more beloved to me than everything except myself’. The Prophet (S.A) said, ‘No! O Umar! Until I become more beloved to you than your own self’. Umar (R.A) then said, ‘O Prophet of Allah! Certainly you are more beloved to me than everything including my own self’. The Prophet (S.A) said, ‘Now, O Umar’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer Vol. 3 Pg. 617)

2) The Prophet (S.A) said, ‘By him in whose hand is my soul, no one from among you is a believer until I become more beloved to him than his own self, his wealth, his children and all mankind’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer Vol. 3 Pg. 617)

3) The Prophet (S.A) said, ‘There is no believer except that I am dearer to him from mankind in this world and the hereafter’. After saying this, the Prophet continued by saying, ‘Read, if you wish ‘The Prophet is dearer to the believers than their own selves’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer Vol. 3 Pg. 617)

4) The Prophet (S.A) said, ‘I am dearer to every believer than his own self. So whoever dies and leaves a debt, then it is upon me (to repay) and whoever leaves wealth, it is for his inheritors’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer Vol. 3 Pg. 617).

Based on these traditions which Hafiz Ibn Katheer has mentioned, as well as other commentators, it shows that the meaning and message of the verse is that the Prophet (S.A) is more beloved and dearer to the believers than their own selves. As such, every believer must hold him dearer than anyone else.

The message is not that which has been fabricated by the writer by saying that the verse means ‘that the prophet is with every Muslim’. This is clear deviation and concoction.

Another clear deviation and fabrication of the writer is in his explaination of the following statement which he has written. He states, ‘Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran, ‘And keep thy soul content with those who call on their lord morning and evening, seeking his face and let not thine eyes pass beyond them’. (Surah Kahf : 28)

While fabricating his own explanation on the above verse, the writer states, ‘in this verse Allah Ta’ala is asking Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (S.A) to keep a close watch on those people who seek him. He is asked to observe them day and night. Note that no limitation has been imposed. “Observe them during your life and after you assume a veil of departure”. This is another proof that the Prophet (S.A) is watching us 24 hours a day!’(Article Hazir and Nazir).

These statements are nothing short of open shirk and corrupted belief. The writer of the article seems to be very ignorant of the basic teachings in Islam, and has absolutely no knowledge of the Tafseer and commentary of the Quran. How can a Muslim in his right mind think that the Prophet (S.A) is watching us 24 hours a day!

To get a clear and true understanding of the verse, one must look at the authentic and reliable commentaries of the Holy Quran.

In this regard, the great exegete and famous commentator Hafiz Ibn Katheer quoted the verse, ‘And keep thy soul with those who call on their lord morning and evening, seeking his face and let not thine eyes pass beyond them’, and then writes, ‘it means (O Prophet), sit with those servants of Allah who remember Allah, those who say la ilaha illallah, those who praise Him, glorify Him, extol His greatness and ask from Him morning and evening. (Sit with them), whether they are poor or rich, strong or weak’. Having given this explanation, Hafiz Ibn Katheer further writes, ‘This verse has been revealed about the incident when the chiefs of the Quraish wanted the Prophet (S.A) to sit with them alone and leave aside the poor and indigent ones from his companions like Bilal (R.A), Ammar (R.A), Suhaib(R.A), Khabbab (R.A) and Abdullah bin Masood (R.A). The Prophet (S.A.S) was told in this verse that he should not do what they are requesting, but instead, he should continue to stay in the company of these poor companions who remember Allah day and night’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer Vol. 3 Pg. 80).

Other similar reports have been given in different commentaries. The great Muffasir Ibn Jareer At Tabari has mentioned ‘Ibn Zaid has stated, ‘some people said to the Prophet (S.A), we are ashamed to sit with so and so, so and so (referring to the poor ones from the Companions (Sahabahs). Move them away, O Muhammad, and let the chiefs of the Quraish sit with you’. Upon this, the verse was revealed which stated, ‘ And keep thy soul content with those who call on their lord morning and evening, seeking his face and let not thine eyes pass beyond them’. (Sura Kahf: 28). The Prophet (S.A.S) was ordered to keep the company of the poor companions who continued to remember Allah morning and evening’. (Tafseer At Tabari Vol. 15 Pg. 271).

Imam Qurtubi, the renowned commentator of the Holy Quran has stated, ‘Salman Al Farsi (R.A) said, Those whose hearts were recently reconciled to Islam, namely Uyainah bin Hisn and Al Aqra bin Habis came to the Prophet (S.A) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, if you sit at the head of the gathering and you move away from us these people (referring to Salman, Abu Zarr and the poor Muslims) and the scent of their cloaks (they wore cloaks made of wool which gave off the scent of perspiration). If you move them away, then we will sit with you, we will speak to you, and would take (teachings) from you’. Upon this, the verse was revealed, ‘And keep thy soul content with those who call on their lord morning and evening’.

The verse commanded the Prophet (S.A) to keep the company of the poor Companions and he must not prefer the Quraish chiefs above them. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi Vol. 10 Pg. 339).

Based on these authentic and sound Ahadith and commentaries, it is well established that the verse in question, informed the Prophet (S.A) to keep the company of the poor Muslims who were very humble and simple. There is absolutely no Hadith, Tafseer or report of any of the great scholars from the time of the Sahabahs until today which stated that the verse means that ‘the Prophet (S.A) is asked to watch, and keep a close look at the believers’. Similarly, it is sheer falsehood to deduce from this verse that the ‘Prophet (S.A) is watching us 24 hours a day’. This statement is nothing but a clear fabrication and a deviation from the right path.

In fact, the Holy Quran itself makes it clear that the Prophet (S.A) is not made in charge of looking and watching the believers. In Sura Al Ghashiya verses 21 and 22, Allah says to the Prophet (S.A), ‘So remind them, you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator, watcher over them’.

Here, Allah clearly tells the Prophet (S.A) about his task to the people. He (the Prophet S.A) was told that he was sent only as a ‘reminder’, he was not sent to look at, or manage the affairs of the people.

In another verse of the Holy Quran, in Sura Al Furqaan verse 56, Allah tells the Prophet (S.A), ‘And We have sent you only as a bearer of glad tidings and as a warner’. While commenting on this verse, the commentators have stated, ‘Here, in this verse the Prophet (S.A) has been told that he has been sent only as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner. He has not been sent to ensure that everyone believes, nor has he been sent to force them to believe.

In another verse, in Sura Al Fajr, it states, ‘And Thamud who hewed out rocks in the valley. And Pharoah who had the stakes. Who did transgress beyond bounds in the lands. And made therein much mischief. So your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment. Verily, your Lord is Ever Watchful (over them). (Sura Al Fajr (89) verses 9-14).

Here, in the above verses, it is clearly established that Allah alone is watchful over all his servants. Again in Sura Al Ma’idah verse 117, it is established that no one but Allah is looking at/watching the deeds of the servants. The verse in question tells about the discussion which Jesus (Esa) will have with Allah on the Day of Judgement. He (Jesus) will say to Allah, ‘Never did I say to them aught except what you did command me to say, ‘Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord’. And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the watcher over them, and You are a witness to all things.’

This verse makes it abundantly clear that Allah alone is the watcher over all beings and He alone is a witness to every single thing.

Similarly, in Sura Al Ahzab (33) verse 52, the Quran states, ‘It is not lawful for you (to marry other) women after this, nor to change them for other wives even though their beauty attracts you, except those slaves whom your right hand possesses. And Allah is Ever Watchful over all things’. (33:52)

Here, again the point is emphasized that Allah alone is watchful over all things. It is to be noted that in this passage, the address is given to the Prophet (S.A) and Allah clearly tells him that He (Allah) is the One who is watchful over His servants, and not the Prophet (S.A).

The same subject has also been highlighted in verse 1 of Sura Nisa. The verse states, ‘O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him, He created his wife, and from them both He created many men and women. And fear Allah through Whom you demand (your mutual rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All­-Watcher over you.

The outstanding attribute of Allah is given here, stating that He alone is the ‘Watcher’ and is watchful of the deeds of His servants.

With respect to the statement which was quoted by Sayyiduna Amr bin Dinar (RA) that ‘if you enter a house and find that there is nobody there, say, ‘May peace and Blessings of Allah be upon the Holy Prophet (S.A)’. No one from among the pious predecessors has used such a statement. In fact, when asked about the source of this statement, Amr bin Dinar did not provide any proof for it. The great Mufassir Imam Ibn Jareer At Tabari has highlighted this in his famous Tafseer (commentary of the Holy Quran) in Vol.18 pg. 206- Tafseer At Tabari. While indicating to this, Imam Ibn Jareer has quoted that when Ata was asked by Ibn Juraij about the statement of Amr bin Dinar as to what was the source of this, and from whom it was narrated, he said, ‘I heard it but its source was not mentioned to me’. (Tafseer At Tabari Vol.18 pg.208).

Ibn Jareer also mentioned the statement of Ibn Juraij that he said, ‘Ata Al Khurasaani has narrated from Abdullah bin Abbas that he said, ‘(One must) say Assalamu Alaina min Rabbina (Peace upon us from our lord) and Amr bin Dinar has said, ‘Assalaamu Alaina wa ala Ibaadillahis Saaliheen’. (Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s righteous Servants). (These statements are mentioned when one enters a house and there is no one there). (Tafseer At Tabari Vol. 18 pg.206)

Further to the above mentioned quotation, the writer of the article ‘Hazir and Nazir’ states, ‘while writing a commentary on this Hadith Shareef, Sayyiduna Mulla Ali Qaari (alaihir rahmah) says, ‘This is so, because the soul of the Prophet is present in every Muslim home’, hence, he is hazir and nazir.

In trying to establish this, the poor un-informed writer makes a blunder by saying that the quotation of Amr bin Dinar is a hadith shareef. How can this be a hadith? Does our brother know what a hadith is? By reading the statement, every Muslim who has a little bit of knowledge will be able to see clearly that there is absolutely no hadith that is mentioned. Instead, it is only a narration of Amr bin Dinar (A.R) which in reality, has no source in the teachings of the Prophet (S.A) (as quoted before). The writer makes another blunder by misusing and misunderstanding the statement of Mulla Ali Qaari which he has quoted (saying that the soul of the Prophet (S.A) is in every home). This is nothing but sheer benightedness on the part of the writer, who really does not understand the classical writings of our great scholars.

From the writings of Mulla Ali Qaari, it is clearly established that he did not have the belief (or even propagated the belief) that the Prophet (S.A) is present everywhere. In one of his most famous works, ‘Al Mirqaat’ (the commentary of Mishkaat), he quoted the following hadith of the Prophet (S.A), ‘Whoever sends blessings (Salaah) upon me at my grave, I hear it, and whoever sends blessings upon me from a far distance, it is delivered to me.’ (Mishkaat). Having quoted this hadith, Mulla Ali Qaari gives the following explaination: ‘The Prophet (S.A) said, ‘Whoever send blessings upon me at my grave, I hear it’. Mulla Ali Qaari says, ‘Here, the hearing is real and direct without a media’. The Prophet (S.A) then said, ‘and whoever sends blessings upon me from a distance, it is delivered/conveyed to me’. Mulla Ali Qaari stated, ‘It means, those who send blessings while they are far away from the grave, then their blessings are conveyed to the Prophet (S.A)’. (Mirqaat Sharh of Mishkaat ).

This hadith, as well as the explanation of Mulla Ali Qaari shows that the Prophet (S.A) directly hears the Salaah (blessings) of those who convey blessings to him (based on the ability which Allah Has given to him) when they convey it close to the grave. However, as for those who convey blessings from a far distance from the Prophet’s grave, he (the Prophet) does not hear it directly, it is conveyed and delivered to him. What is evident from this tradition is that if the Prophet (S.A) was present everywhere at all places, then he would have heard the blessings directly from them, and there would have been no need for these blessings to be conveyed to him in his grave. This is further supported by another tradition which states that the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘There are certain angels of Allah that move through the earth who conveys the greetings (salaam) of my followers to me’.(Musnad Ahmad, Nasai, Darimi). While commenting on this tradition, Mulla Ali Qaari writes, ‘The hadith shows that the angels accept the greetings of the followers and then deliver it to the Prophet (S.A) when the followers are away from the grave of the Prophet (S.A)’. (Mirqaat).

This explaination of Mulla Ali Qaari clearly shows that he does not belief that the Prophet (S.A) is present everywhere. In fact, he establishes the fact that through the media of the angels, the Prophet (S.A) is informed of the greetings of his followers. If the Prophet (S.A) was present everywhere, and his soul was present in the homes of the Muslims (as it has been inferred), then the Prophet (S.A) would have listened directly to the greetings of his followers, and there would have been no need for the angels to deliver it to him (in his grave). Mulla Ali Qaari establishes the same point in his Sharh of Ash-Shifa on pg. 500 of Vol. 3 (Egyptian print), where he states, ‘The Prophet (S.A) is informed of the greetings of the far ones through the media of the angels. That is, the angels reach the greetings to him’. If the Prophet (S.A) was present everywhere and in the homes of the Muslims, then there would have been no reason to identify those giving greetings and blessings as being ‘near’ or ‘far’, yet, we see that the Prophet (S.A) has specifically highlighted the both categories of those who convey greetings to him. If the Prophet (S.A) was in the home of every believer, then it means that he is close to them, so what then is the meaning of ‘one being far from him’.

From the above explanations, it can be clearly seen that the great Scholar, Mulla Ali Qaari did not hold the belief that the Prophet (S.A) was Hazir and Nazir (that is, being present everywhere). As for the quotation which is attributed to him, (that he said that ‘the soul of the Prophet (S.A) is present in every Muslim home’), we need to look at this to see if this is his statement or not. While looking at this issue, it is important for one to understand that the book which the reference has been taken from is ‘Sharh Ash Shifaa’, which means a commentary on ‘Ash Shifa’. The book ‘Ash Shifa’, is a wonderful book written by Imam Qazi Iyaaz on the virtues of the Prophet (S.A) and sending peace and blessings upon him etc. etc,

Imam Qazi Iyaaz explained those places in which it is Mustahab to recite Darood (to send blessings upon the prophet S.A) and while doing do, he wrote that Amr bin Dinar has said, ‘If you enter a house and there is no one there, then say peace be upon the Prophet and may the mercy and blessings of Allah be upon him. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous Servants of Allah. Peace be upon the people of the house and may the mercy and blessings of Allah be with them’. (Sharh Ash Shifa pg.116-117)

On this point while commenting on the issue of why should one say Peace and blessing upon the Prophet (SAS),it was attributed to Mulla Ali Qaari that he said, ‘(the reason for doing so is that) the Soul of the Prophet (SAS) is in the home of every Muslim’. The writer of the article conveniently uses this statement of Mulla Ali Qaari to propagate his deviated belief.

However, due to the fact that Mulla Ali Qaari’s belief in this matter opposes this statement which has been attributed to him, some scholars have done extensive research to verify whether this is his statement or not. In their investigations, they have seen that this statement was not mentioned by Mulla Ali Qaari. Instead it is the mistaken statement attributed to this great scholar. In this regard, the great Muhadith and Shaikhul Hadith, Muhammad Yahya (A.R) (died 1334 AH) of Saharanpur, India has written in his Risala (which has been attested to, by the great jurist and scholar Allama Rasheed Ahmad (A.R),) that, ‘some people have been deceived based on a mistake made by the publishers of the script of ‘Sharh Ash Shifa’ (of Mulla Ali Qaari). In their print the letter ‘Laa’ (in the Arabic language) has been missed out from the statement that speaks about the presence of the soul of the Prophet (S.A) being present in the home of Muslims.

The original script as well as other prints of the same book has the Arabic words
which means that, ‘saying salaams in one’s house is not for the reason that the Soul of the Prophet (S.A) is in the home’. This is the true statement of Mulla Ali Qaari which he has written in his book, and is preserved in this manner in the original scripts (as witnessed by many scholars). The reason that Mulla Ali Qaari gave this explanation, is to refute the belief of some deviated groups that existed at his time. They believed that the Soul of the Prophet (S.A) was present in the home of every Muslim. Mulla Ali Qaari refuted this notion by saying that the purpose of sending blessings upon the Prophet (S.A) when one enters his home is simply to get the blessings of reciting Darood (Salaah). It should not be due to the incorrect belief that the Prophet (S.A) is in his house.

This is the true and authentic statement of Mulla Ali Qaari. The Mistake/error made by publishers was that they left out the letter ‘laa’ which presented a total opposite meaning, so the mistaken print is:

Which means that the reason one should send blessings upon the Prophet (S.A) when he enters his home is due to the fact ‘that the Soul of the Prophet (S.A) is in his home.’

This is the meaning which is given since the letter ‘laa’ was left out by the publishers. The error was made in the very beginning and so, all the copies that were printed and circulated afterwards came with this error. Those who were fortunate to view the original script of Mulla Ali Qaari were able to compare the scripts and realize that this error occurred.

What supports this explanation is the fact that all the other writings and authentic books written by Mulla Ali Qaari show that he did not subscribe to the belief that the Prophet (S.A) possessed the knowledge of the unseen. This can be seen from his explanations in Mirqaat, Sharh of Fiqhul Akbar, Sharh Ash Shifa.

From the above explanations, it is evident that the writer of the ‘Hazir Nazir’ article mislead the readers by presenting quotations out of context, and without a proper understanding of these quotations. Further to these references (to support his deviated belief), the writer quotes the narration which stated that the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘If any of you enters the mosque, send salaams to me, followed by this Du’a: O Allah! Open your door of Blessing for me’.

Having quoted this hadith, the writer states ‘This hadith proves that Sayyiduna Rasoolullah (S.A) is present in every Mosque of this world…
May Allah forbid! This is from the worst type of inference and deduction one can see. There is absolutely no connection between the statement of the Rasool (S.A) and what has been written by the writer.

What is amazing is that no reliable scholar from the time of the Sahabahs until today has ever established this belief or statement from the above hadith. Thousands of Muhaditheen (traditionists), Mufasireen (commentators), Fuqaha (jurists) and great scholars have recorded this hadith and explained it in their respective books, however, none from among them has stated or even indicated to the deviated belief which the writer has deduced from the blessed tradition. In fact, while he has most happily used the statement of Mulla Ali Qaari at another place, he should have used Qaari’s statement for this hadith also. But he did not do so, seeing that no scholar has given such a misguided interpretation of the hadith.

As for what Mulla Ali Qaari has written on this point in Sharh Ash Shifa, it is interesting to read, and from it, one will be able to see that recitation of Darood (Salaah-blessings) upon entering the mosque is not for the reason that the Prophet (SAAS) is present in every mosque, but instead, it is done in accordance to the practice of the Prophet (SAS) himself.
In the Sharh of ‘Ash Shifa’, Mulla Ali Qaari has given the text of Ash Shifa (which is written by Qazi Iyaaz) and then, he explained this text in his commentary.

The text of Ash Shifa stated:- ‘And it is required for one who enters the Masjid to send blessings (salaah) upon the Prophet (S.A) and upon his family, and should also asked Allah to show His mercy upon the Prophet (S.A) and his family, and should also send greetings to him and his family. He should then say, ‘O Allah forgive me my sins and open for me the doors of your mercy’. When one exits the Masjid he should do the same, and instead of saying ‘open for me the doors of your mercy’, he should say, ‘and open for me the doors of your grace’. (Ash Shifa by Al Qazi Abul Fadhl Iyaaz (died 544 A.H.) Vol. 2 pg. 43).Mullah Ali Qaari (RA) quoted the above in his commentary of Ash Shifa and then wrote: – ‘(The above) This is taken (evident) from the hadith of Ahmad, Abu Ya’la and Tirmizi. Imam Tirmizi has considered the hadith of Fatima as a good hadith in which it states, ‘When the Prophet (S.A) entered the mosque, he used to say, ‘May Allah send blessings and greetings upon Muhammad, O Allah! Forgive me my sins and open for me the doors of your mercy’, When the Prophet (S.A) exited the mosque he used to say, ‘May Allah send blessings and greetings upon Muhammad. O Allah! Forgive me my sins and open for me the doors of Your grace’. Having quoted this, Mulla Ali Qaari says, the source of this is found in the hadith of Sahih Muslim’. (Sharh Ash Shifa pg.116).

From the above explanation of Mulla Ali Qaari, two points are established. The first is that there is no mention by the great scholar that the reason for sending blessings upon the Prophet (SAS) is that he is present in every mosque. If this was the truth, why did Mulla Ali Qari (being a great scholar) omit such an important explaination (as the writer thinks), when he (the writer) immediately grabbed a prior explaination (of Mulla Ali Qaari) on the topic of saying Darood when one entered the house. (as we have discussed before).

How is it that the writer saw it fit to quote Qaari’s statement at that time, but now, he does not even give Qaari’s explaination on this issue. Is it because of the fact that in the case of entering a house, Qaari’s explaination suited him (the writer) but now, in this case of entering the mosque, his (Qaari’s) opinion is not suitable to him?

The second point that is established from Mulla Ali Qaari’s explaination is that the Prophet (S.A) himself used to recite Salaah and Salaam when he entered and exited the Masjid. It goes to show that when Muslims recite salaah and salaam while entering/exiting a mosque, they are simply following a sunnah of the Prophet (S.A), and it has never been done (and is not being done),with the belief that the Prophet (S.A) is present in every mosque.

So the inference and deduction which the writer has made from the above mentioned hadith is a sample to show how deviated his teachings are. What he has stated as an understanding from the blessed tradition has not been attested to by any reliable and authoritative scholar over the centuries of Islam.

It is in this careless, irresponsible and reckless manner the writer of the ‘Hazir Nazir’ article goes on to misquote, mistranslate and give his personal and fabricated explaination on different ahadith and Quranic verses.

What we have seen so far is a lot of fabrication and deviation from the true understanding of the verse quoted above. Similarly, many ahadith have been wrongly translated and quotations of some scholars have been quoted out of context. One of the main argument that the innovators use to established their deviated belief is the verse in which the Prophet (S.A) is referred to as a ‘Shahid’ (a witness). The verse is ‘O Prophet! Truly, we have sent you as a Witness, a Bearer of Glad Tidings and a Warner’ (Sura Ahzab: 45)

While following their common habit of mistranslating the Quranic verses, the innovators have used the verse as an evidence to show that the Prophet (S.A) is present every where, witnessing the deeds of all the people.

However, this statement like those before, is also a concoction on their part, since no scholar from the time of the Sahabahs until the latter generation of Scholars, has ever given such an explanation for this verse.

With respect to the verse in which the Prophet (S.A) has been referred to as a ‘Shahid’ (Witness), we will look at what the great, reliable and authoritative Commentators (of the Holy Quran) have written.

In one of the hadith, the brother quoted that the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘I have been sent towards all the creation of Almighty Allah’. Having quoted this, the brother goes about deducing his own personal laws by saying, ‘This hadith shareef proves that the Prophet (S.A) is being a witness for those towards whom he was sent as a Prophet’.

A look into this hadith shows that this is part of a longer hadith which has been recorded by Imam Muslim and quoted by the author of Mishkat. The complete hadith is as follows:- Abu Huraira (R.A) said that the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘I have been given virtues above the other Prophets in six things, I have been given comprehensive speech, I have been helped and assisted with fear being placed in the hearts of my enemies. The spoils of war have been made lawful for me, the entire world has been made as a Masjid and a medium of purification for me. I have been sent to the entire creation and prophethood came to an end with me’. (Sahih Muslim, Mishkaat).

While commenting on the part of the hadith that states, ‘I have been sent to the entire creation’, Mulla Ali Qaari stated in Mirqaat, the commentary of Mishkaat, ‘it means that the Prophet (S.A) was sent to the Jinns, men, angels, and animals etc.’ Having quoted this, Mulla Ali Qaari does not state anything regarding the Prophet (S.A) being a witness towards whom he was sent. (Mirqaat Sharh Mishkaat Vol.10 pg.427).

Other commentators like that of Imam Nawawi (who has written a Sharh (commentary) of Saheeh Muslim) does not quote any such remark while explaining the above hadith in his Sharh. In fact, no scholar of hadith has deduced/inferred from the above hadith that the Prophet (S.A) is being a witness to those to whom he was sent. This notion is nothing but a clear fabrication and mischief from the writer of the article, who is not even qualified to translate ahadith far less for explaining them. So far, he has given his own ‘manufactured’ and ‘made up’ explanations on several traditions and Quranic verses, which no Muhaddith and Mufasir on the face of the earth has ever given. He has misquoted, mistranslated and has drawn his personal conclusions on a few citations that he has given.

The truth of the matter is that our brother is on a deviated path which preaches shirk in Islam. The belief that the Prophet (S.A) is present everywhere, sees everyone and everything, and possesses knowledge of everything is a deviated, fabricated and polytheistic belief that has never been held by the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.

The Holy Quran does not preach this belief. The Prophet (S.A) himself never taught such deviation. The Sahabahs, Tabieen and Tabu’t Tabieen never had such beliefs. The four renowned Imams of Fiqh, and the Imams of Hadith and Tafseer never had such beliefs. So where did this belief come from? Who started it? Who preaches it? Who believes in it? What is the ruling of those who believe in it?

What is clear from authentic research and writings of the great scholars is that this belief is a fabrication of the latter day Muslims, who along with other things innovated this belief and made it a part of their Aqeeda. In trying to prove their position, they conveniently used verses of the Holy Quran and ahadith in accordance to their misguided and wrong understanding, saying that those verses and traditions support their views. Although the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah strongly opposed and condemned this new fabrication, it still found its way in the minds of the illiterate and innocent Muslims in certain parts of the world. It then became established as part of the creed of certain deviated groups and from here, it started to move from one place to another.

Muslims who wish to follow the truth should understand that this belief is not from the ‘Sunni Muslims’, instead, it is a belief of the innovators who are steeped into a tremendous amount of innovations. Although they claim to follow the creed of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah, and that they are followers of Imam Abu Hanifah, some of their beliefs are far different and contradictory to the creed of the ‘Sunni Muslims’, and their actions in following ‘customs’ and ‘practices’ are totally opposed to the Mazhab of Imam Abu Hanifa.

The belief of ‘Hazir and Nazir’ for the Prophet (S.A) as highlighted before, has been condemned as ‘shirk’ by the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah, and it has no place in Islam. All the evidences in the Holy Quran and the traditions of the Prophet (S.A) preach against these doctrines, and hence, it is not befitting for any Muslim who truly believes in Allah and His Prophet (S.A), to subscribe to such shirk beliefs.

The writer in the said article wants to misguide the common Muslims to believe that this ‘Hazir/Nazir belief’ is connected to the teachings of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.
Hence, he makes his own/personal wrong deductions, he fabricates his own statements, mistranslates almost all the quotations and puts his own meaning and message to selected quotations of great scholars of the past.

In this way, he quotes a small part of what was said or written by a scholar, taking it out of context and not presenting the accurate and correct message of the person quoted. This, as we see, is clear mischief, and is misleading on the part of the writer of the article entitled ‘Hazir wa Nazir’, I, therefore, have no trust and reliance on the other quotations which have been given in his misleading article.

In propagating their false doctrine, the innovators have put forward the following Quranic Ayat (verse):-

Allah says in the Quran ‘O Prophet! Truly, we have sent you as a witness, a bearer of Glad Tidings, and a Warner’. (Sura Al Ahzab V.45).

Having quoted this verse, the ill informed writer states, ‘Here, Allah says that the Holy Prophet (SAS) is a witness sent by Him concerning men’s doings and how they receive Allah Ta’ala’s Message’. The brother continues by saying, ‘In order to give evidence, a witness has to be present and watching. Even in the court of law, a witness is asked, ‘Did you see the incident taking place?’ Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran, ‘And the Apostle is a witness over yourselves’. (2:144)

Here, we see that the brother is doing the same thing of manufacturing personal opinions and drawing such conclusions that no Muhadith or Mufasir has drawn. He has done the same for all the other quotations which I have responded to (before). He quotes the verse and applies his own judgment.

The question is, does the verse have the meaning that he has given? Or does it have another meaning?

A brief look into the most authentic commentaries of the Holy Quran like that of Tafseer Ibn Jareer At Tabari, Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Tafseer Al Bahrul Muheet etc. shows that the statement made by the brother is totally wrong and is in clear opposition to the truth of the message of the verse. The brother has therefore committed a grave sin by giving his personal opinion on the Book of Allah, and to him there is the warning of the Prophet (S.A) in which he said, ‘Whoever explains the Holy Quran with his own/personal opinion, let him make his abode in the fire of Hell’. He must also know that giving one’s personal opinion in the Holy Quran is totally haram according to all the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah.

Further to this, we see that the brother wrote, ‘In order to give evidence, a witness has to be present and watching’. From this, he derives that for the Prophet (S.A) to be a witness, he has to be watching us. To this, I say, how is it that we, as Muslims bear witness that Allah is our Lord/God and we have not seen Him? How is it that we, as Muslims bear witness that the Prophet Muhammad (S.A) is the Messenger of Allah, and we do not see him? Daily, a Muslim says, ‘Ash hadu an la ilaha illallah Wa Ash hadu anna Muhammadar Rasulullah’, meaning ‘I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger’.

Here, we bear witness that Allah is the only God – but we do not see him. We also bear witness that the Prophet (S.A) is Allah’s Messenger – but we have not seen him. So, is the brother’s statement right, that one must be present, watching something in order to bear witness? The answer is no, because if his statement is right, it means that our action of bearing witness to Allah and His messenger will be wrong – since we did not see them. From this argument, it shows that a person can bear witness, based on correct and sound information which is conveyed to him. It is for this reason, we, as Muslims, will continue to bear witness to Allah and His Messenger, based on the sound and correct information which have reached us.

While explaining the concept of being a witness to something, the great scholar of the Arabic language in his book Al Munjid, writes, ‘to witness something’ means to be well informed about it’. It is this meaning that the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah have understood from the above mentioned verse, that the Prophet (S.A) will be informed by Allah about the actions of the people, and it does not mean that he is looking at/watching the actions of the people.

This understanding is very clear and well established from the authentic tradition (hadith) recorded by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih compilation. The tradition states that on the Day of Judgment, some Muslims would rush to the Prophet (SAS), but the angels would block them and send them away. Upon this, the Prophet (SAS) will ask these angels as to why they are stopping his followers from meeting him. The angels would respond by saying, ‘O Prophet of Allah! You are not aware of what they did after you left the world’. The angels will then inform the Prophet (S.A) of what these Muslims did. After hearing what they did, he (the Prophet (S.A)) will say, ‘Get them away, Get them away to the fire of Hell’. (Bukhari).

The tradition clearly indicates that on the Day of Judgment, the Prophet (S.A) would be informed by the angels as to what some of his followers did. This means that he had no knowledge of this, prior to being informed, hence, he will ask the angels as to why they will be preventing his followers from coming to him. If the Prophet (S.A) had known what his followers have done, there would be no need for him to seek the information from the angels. The author of Al Munjid further writes, ‘the noun ‘shahid’ which means ‘witness’ (as used in the verse) also means ‘one who gives perfect and accurate information’.

So here, in the verse, while enumerating the attributes of the Prophet (S.A) Allah says, ‘O Prophet we have sent you as a witness- one who gives accurate and perfect information, a bearer of glad tidings and a warner’.(Sura Ahzab :45)

This is another meaning which has been established for the attribute of the Prophet (S.A) in being a witness, and not that he is watching everyone as mentioned in the misleading article.

The writer (of the article) has quoted another verse in which the Prophet (S.A) is mentioned as being a witness. The verse which he quoted is, ‘And the apostle is a witness over yourselves’. (2:144)

By quoting this verse, the writer has shown to the scholars that he is ‘on a drive’ to simply create mischief and to misrepresent the truth.

First of all, he quotes these verses to the readers, and instead of presenting any reliable and authoritative commentary, he goes about drawing his own conclusions.

Secondly, he quotes a short portion of the verse and intentionally leaves out the other part which is very important in understanding the verse properly. The complete verse of Chapter 2 verse 144 is: ‘And thus we have made you (the ummah of the prophet) a moderate nation so that you shall be witnesses over mankind and that the Messenger shall be a witness over you’ (2:144)

The writer, in a misleading manner, simply quoted the last portion of the verse, saying that ‘here, the Prophet (S.A) is a witness and this means that he is watching everyone and he has full knowledge of everything’. This is the fabricated belief the writer wishes to put across.

To him, we say, ‘the verse also says that the ummah of the Prophet has been told that Allah has made them ‘witnesses over mankind’. Using the trend of the writer’s understanding with respect to the meaning of the word ‘witness’, does it mean that the ummah (followers) of the Prophet (S.A) are also watching the deeds of everyone past, present and future? Does it mean that they see the sin of everyone, even when they are not physically present? According to the writer, this is supposed to be the case, since, according to him a person can only be a witness when he is present, and watching, and in the verse Allah says that the followers are witnesses over mankind’. However, even a child would have sufficient intelligence to see that this trend of thought is simply foolish, and no one would believe that this is what is meant by the verse.

The writer could have saved himself from this senseless type of statement, if he had produced reliable explainations of the given verses. However, seeing that he did not do that, and he chose to give his own/personal misguided opinions, he has fallen into the satan’s trap and will not be able to explain the verse in light of his own statements. The true and correct explaination will be given shortly.

With respect to verse 45 of Sura Al Ahzab in which Allah states, ‘O Prophet! Truly, We have sent you as a witness’, the great commentator, Hafiz Ibn Katheer (A.R) writes, ‘It means that the Prophet (S.A) has been sent as a witness to testify that Allah is One and that there is no other god besides Him. The Prophet (S.A) will also testify against people on the Day of Judgement’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer vol.3 pg. 497)

While commenting on this verse, the great commentator Imam Tabari writes, ‘O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a witness’, means that the Prophet (S.A) has been sent as a witness over his Ummah testifying that he has reached a message to them. (On the Day of Judgement he will bear witness that he delivered a message to them).(Tafseer Ibn Jareer At Tabari vol.22 pg.24)

Commenting on the same verse that the Prophet (S.A) has been sent as a witness, the great commentators from among the pious Predecessors, Saeed (A.R) and Qatada (A.R) state, ‘It means that the Prophet (S.A) will be a witness over his nation testifying that he delivered a message to them. He will be a witness against the other nations, testifying that their Prophets have delivered a message to them’. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi vol.14 pg.178).

The other great commentator Abu Hayan has also stated, ‘the words ‘O Prophet! Truly We have sent you as a witness’, means that the Prophet (S.A) is a witness to those to whom he was sent. He will testify as to who denied him, and those who believed in him’. His act of being a witness will be regarding the time when he was sent as a Prophet to his people. (Tafseer Al Bahrul Muheet, vol.8 pg.487)

So far, we have given the quotations of four of the great and reliable commentaries of the Holy Quran and none of these have given the meaning of the verse as that which the writer of the ‘Hazir wa Nazir’ article has given.

With respect to the other verse which the brother quoted in support of his wrong notion, we will look at some of the sound and reliable commentaries of the Holy Quran regarding the verse. The verse quoted was, ‘Thus We have made you (the Muslim nation), a just nation that you be witnesses over mankind, and the Messenger be a witness over you’. (2:143). The brother quoted this verse to say that the Prophet (S.A) is a witness, hence, he is witnessing everybody and knows their good and bad actions etc. From the reliable commentaries, one will see how wrong and deviated the above mentioned statement is, and it will also be seen that the above deduced statement has no relation to what Allah has mentioned in the Holy Quran. Regarding the verse, the great Mufassir Hafiz Ibn Katheer writes (on the commentary of the verse), ‘Abu Saeed (R.A) narrates that the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘Prophet Nuh (A.S) will be called on the Day of Judgement and he shall be asked, ‘Did you deliver the message?’ He will say, ‘Yes, I have delivered the message’. His nation shall then be called, and it shall be said to them, ‘Did Nuh convey the message to you?’ They will say, ‘No! No warner came to us, and no one came to us’. It shall then be said to Nuh (A.S), ‘Who shall bear witness for you?’ He will say, ‘Muhammad and his nation’. Upon this, the Prophet (S.A) said, ‘This is the meaning of the verse “Thus We have made you a just nation, so that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you”. The Prophet (S.A) continued by saying, ‘They (the Muslim Ummah) will be called and they shall bear witness that Nuh (A.S) delivered the message. And I will bear witness over them’. (Bukhari, Tirmizi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah – Tafseer Ibn Katheer vol.1 pg.190)

Based on this commentary which is evident from authentic narrations, it shows that the verse which states that ‘the Messenger be a witness over you’ has no relation to that which has been fabricated by the writer of the Hazir/Nazir article, instead, it simply means that the Prophet (S.A) will be a witness on the Day of Judgement, as he has clearly mentioned in the tradition. The same traditions and commentary has been given by Imam Jareer At Tabari in his commentary, showing that this is the proper understanding and most reliable explanation of the verse. (Tafseer Ibn Jareer At Tabari vol.2 pg.16).

Going further into the part of the verse which states that ‘the Prophet (S.A) will be a witness over you’, Imam At Tabari quoted the sound opinion given by the great Mufassir Ata (who was the student of Abdullah bin Abbas (R.A), in which he (Ata) said, ‘It means that the Prophet (S.A) will be a witness over those who believed in him when he came to them’. (Tafseer Ibn Jareer At Tabari vol.2 pg.16)

Here also, we see that ‘the Prophet (S.A) being a witness over you’ means that the Prophet (S.A) will testify to Allah on the Day of Judgement that he has delivered his message to the people. It also means that the Prophet (S.A) will bear witness to the fact that the other Prophets conveyed the message of truth to their people, based on revelation which was sent to him confirming this.

No commentator of the Holy Quran from the time of the Sahabah until today, has used the above mentioned verses which speak about the Prophet (S.A) being a ‘witness’ to say that the Prophet (S.A) is presently looking at all the deeds of his Ummah or mankind. This is a clear deviation from the truth.

The position of the People of Truth- The Ahlus Saunnah Wal Jamaah

First of all, it must be understood that the term Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah does not refer to any specific organization or group in any country who carries this name.

Instead, it refers to all Muslims who follow the creed of Islam as established in the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A), and thereafter held as the correct and sound beliefs by the Sahabahs, Tabieen and Tab’ut Tabieen; It is these teachings which have come through the generations of the early Muslims to the latter generations, as they were held (exactly) by the Sahabahs, Tabieen and Tab’ut Tabieen. Those who follow this creed are from the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah and are from the ‘Saved sect’. Those who oppose this creed and innovate /invent beliefs/practices/ideologies/dogmas which have not come from the generations of the Sahabahs, Tabieen and Tab’ut Tabieen are not followers of the Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah. It is therefore, compulsory upon Muslims to ensure that their beliefs and practices are in conformance to the teachings of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A) as preached, practice and propagated by the Sahabahs, Tabieen and Tab’ut Tabieen.

Having said this, we wish to make it abundantly clear that the (Aqeeda) belief of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah is that the term ‘Hazir and Nazit’ is used only for Allah. He alone is watching the entire creation at all times, is fully aware of all their actions, and knows fully well, the good and bad that they do. He alone has the complete knowledge of the past, present and the future. None of these attributes have been given or have been used for the Prophet (S.A). The Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah does not believe that the Prophet (S.A) is here, there and everywhere, and that he has knowledge of the unseen.
There are many verses that highlight this position of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah and some of these are:-

1) While informing the Prophet (S.A) of the incident of Moosa (A.S), Allah says: ‘And you were not at the western end (of Tur) when we sent the law to Moosa, nor were you from among the witnesses’. (Sura Qasas verse 43).

In this verse, Allah tells the Prophet (S.A) that he was not present (Hazir) nor was he a witness (Nazir) at the time when Allah spoke to Moosa (A.S) on Mount Tur.

The verse therefore negates both ‘Hazir and Nazir’ for the Prophet (S.A).

2) In a similar manner, Allah addresses the Prophet (S.A) in Sura At Tawba by saying:-

‘And from among those around you from the desert Arabs, and from the people of Madina there are hypocrites who are steeped into hypocrisy. You do not know them, but we know them. (Sura At Tauba versr 101).

The above verse clearly indicates that there were hypocrites around the Prophet (S.A) which he did not even know about. Allah makes this abundantly clear by telling the Prophet (S.A) ‘You do not know them’.

If the Prophet (SAS) was ‘Hazir and Nazir’, who knew everything, then how is it he did not know the hypocrites who were around him. In fact, Allah made it clear that He alone possessed that knowledge. Like the previous verse, this verse also refutes the concept of ‘Hazir and Nazir’ for the Prophet (S.A).

3) In another verse, after highlighting the incident of Yusuf (A.S) and his brothers to the Prophet (S.A), Allah said to the Prophet (S.A), ‘This is from the information from the unseen which we have revealed to you. And you were not with them (the brothers of Yusuf) when they made their intention firm while they were plotting.’ (Sura Yusuf verse 102).

Here again, Allah tells the Prophet (S.A.) in clear words, that he was not there when the incident of Yusuf (A.S) took place. This verse therefore negates the idea of ‘Hazir and Nazir’ for the Prophet (S.A).

4) In another verse, after the incidents of Zakariya (A.S) and Maryam (A.S) were revealed, Allah said to the Prophet (S.A), ‘This is from the information of the unseen which we reveal to you. You were not with them when they were throwing their pens to find out who would take care of Maryam. Nor were you present when they disputed.’ (Sura Al Imran verse 44).

This verse, like the other verses clearly establishes the fact that the Prophet (S.A) was not present to witness any of the above mentioned incidents. As such, how could ‘Hazir and Nazir’ be established for him, when Allah has outrightly stated in the Holy Quran that he (the Prophet S.A) was not present to witness many of these incidents.

The eloquent style and grammatical structure of the words of the Quran have been given in such a manner that it leaves no possibility and room for the deviated ones to make Taweel ‘interpretation’ of these verses by fabricating any polytheistic belief. In the first verse quoted, that is, Sura Qasas verse 43, Allah made a negation of the Prophet (S.A) being a witness to the incident on Mt. Tur. In clear words, Allah said to the Prophet (S.A), ‘You were not from among the witnesses.’

To the brother who tried to prove that the Prophet (S.A) is a witness to everyone, past, present and future, we say, ‘Allah himself has negated and refuted such incorrect belief about the Prophet (S.A), since he clearly announced to him saying that he was not a witness to that incident and any other similar incidents.’

When we look at the second verse which is that of Sura Tawba verse 101, we see that Allah negated knowledge from the Prophet (S.A) regarding an issue that was currently taking place at his time. The issue was that of hypocrisy. Some people from among the desert Arabs, as well as some of those from Madina, pretended to be Muslims while they hid shirk in their hearts. Some of these people used to sit with the Prophet (S.A) and attend his gatherings. They listened to his message and presented themselves for Salaah in his Masjid. Notwithstanding this closeness, the Prophet (S.A) had no knowledge that some of them were hypocrites who were totally against him. He did not know that some of them were allies of spies of the unbelievers. It is Allah, who later informed him of these people. The verse therefore, announced to the Prophet (S.A) that he had no knowledge of these hypocrites. It is Allah alone who had this knowledge.

If the Prophet (S.A) was ‘Hazir and Nazir’, he would have known the hypocrites from the very beginning. But this was not the case.

In a similar manner, the other two verses clearly established that the Prophet (S.A) was not present when incidents of the past took place. The only way he knew about these incidents was through the media of revelation, which was clearly stated in the other two verses mentioned above.

Along with the verses of the Holy Quran, there are hundreds of traditions (Ahadith) which make it abundantly clear that even during the time of the Prophet (S.A), he was not aware of many things except through the media of revelation or when he was informed about it. The books of Ahadith are filled with such traditions that clearly prove that the Prophet (S.A) was not ‘Hazir and Nazir’.

And Allah knows best.
Mufti Waseem Khan