Question: Can you explain this word to the light of the majority and minority of the scholars (of the 4 madhahib)
Are the prophets Ma’soom (free from sins)?
The Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah are unanimous on the position that the Prophets are infallible and are free from sins. No one from among them has ever committed a sin intentionally, before and after becoming a Prophet.
However, in some cases, on account of human judgement, some Prophets would have slipped and become forgetful of something. It may have happened that a Prophet would have done something to gain Allah’s pleasure and to achieve closeness to Him, but it was not the best in the sight of Allah. So, in such cases, Allah Has corrected the Prophets in their actions, and had shown them what was the best to do. Such occurrences from the Prophets have no effect on their being infallible and free from sins, since a sin is considered to be ‘a sin’ when one does it intentionally and willingly, understanding it to be a sin and having the thought of disobeying Allah. Prophets are all free and pure from such sins and transgressions. (Fatawa Haqqaniya Vol. 1 Pgs. 149, 150).
In his famous work on the Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaah, Imaam Abu Hanifa (A.R) has written, ‘All the Prophets are free from major and minor sins, disbelief and evil actions.’ (Sharh Fiqh Al Akbar-Ali Qaari Pg 56 Qadeemi Kutub Khana Karachi).
As for the Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w), he was pure and free from all types of sins, before and after prophet hood. While writing about this in his famous book on Aqeedah, Imam Abu Hanifah wrote, ‘The Prophet (s.a.w) never commited a minor or major sin.’ (Fiqh Al Akbar).
With respect to the verses that were revealed to the Prophet (s.a.w) like, ‘Allah has pardon you’ (Quran 9:43), as well as, ‘It is not fitting for a Prophet to take captives.’ (Quran 8:57), Mulla Ali Qari has explained that such verses are in reference to leaving the most superior act given the Prophet’s grand status’ (Sharh Fiqh Al Akbar-Mulla Ali Qaari Pg. 61 – Qaddemi Kutub Khana Karachi Pakistan).
And Allah Knows Best.
Mufti Waseem Khan.