15th November 2013.
The Darul Uloom Institute of Higher Islamic Studies extends a cordial invitation to all Muslim Youths 14 years and over to attend its 4th Islamic Youth Conference.
This will be held on the 20th and 21st of December 2013 and will be hosted at the Darul Uloom Boy’s College (for Boys) and at the Darul Uloom Girls’ College (for girls).
Our youngsters are invited to be a part of the interactive and exciting programmes that will be held at the conference, and learn about their role as Muslims in today’s society. Adults are also invited to attend the main lectures on Friday (20th Dec) and Saturday (21st Dec) after the Maghrib Salaah. These lectures will be delivered by the world renowned Shaikh Zahir Mahmood of the United Kingdom.
For more information call the Darul Uloom at 665 8868 or 665 1442.
Mufti Waseem Khan
Darul Uloom T&T
REGISTER BELOW !!!
The crescent moon to commence the month of Safar 1435 AH was looked for after the sunset of Tue 3rd Dec 2013. The moon was CONFIRMED SIGHTED locally and within the region. The Darul Uloom Moonsighting Committee has accepted these reports and has declared that the month of Muharram has complete 29 days and the 1st night of Safar 1435 AH is the night of Tuesday 3rd December 2013 and the 1st day will be the day of Wednesday 4th December 2013.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّهُ مَنْ لَمْ يَسْأَلِ اللَّهَ يَغْضَبْ عَلَيْهِ»
Abu Hurairah (R.A) narrated, that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “He who does not ask Allah for anything, earns Allah’s wrath.”
(Tirmizi, Hadith No.3373, Pg.462, Vol.2, Altaf and Sons / Ahmad, Hadith No.9707, Pg.446, Vol.2, Darul Fikr / Bazaar, Hadith No.9425, Pg.248, Vol.16, Maktaba Uloom Wal Hakam)
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ بُسْرٍ، قَالَ: أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ
وَسَلَّمَ أَعْرَابِيَّانِ، فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا: مَنْ خَيْرُ الرِّجَالِ يَا
مُحَمَّدُ؟ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” مَنْ طَالَ
عُمْرُهُ، وَحَسُنَ عَمَلُهُ “، وَقَالَ الْآخَرُ: إِنَّ شَرَائِع
الْإِسْلَامِ قَدْ كَثُرَتْ عَلَيْنَا، فَبَابٌ نَتَمَسَّكُ بِهِ جَامِعٌ؟
قَالَ: ” لَا يَزَالُ لِسَانُكَ رَطْبًا مِنْ ذِكْرِ اللهِ “
Hazrat Abdullah bin Busr reported: Two desert Arabs came to the Prophet (SAW), and one of them said, “Who is the best man, O Muhammad (SAW)?” The Prophet (SAW) said, “One who has a long life filled with good deeds.” The other man said, “Indeed, the laws of Islam are too many for us, so give us something comprehensive we can hold onto.” The Prophet (SAW) said, “Keep your tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah the Exalted.”
It means keep your tongue always busy with the dhikr of Allah.
(Musnad Ahmad, Hadith No.17696, Pg.210, Vol.6, Darul Fikr)
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى
اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلْيَقُلْ
خَيْرًا أَوْ لِيَصْمُتْ وَمَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلَا
يُؤْذِ جَارَهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلْيُكْرِمْ
Abu Hurairah (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ) said: The Messeger of Allah (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said: ‘Whoever believes in Allah and the last day, then he should say only good things or he should remain silent; and whoever believes in Allah and the last day, then he should not harm his neighbour; and whoever believes in Allah and the last day then he should honour his guest
(Bukhaari, Hadith # 6475, page 1812, Publisher Altaaf and sons’)
In this narration we can see that by saying “whoever believes in Allah and the last day” the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) indicates that these are some of the qualities and entities that constitute one’s Imaan.
From this, the scholars have stated that the entities of Iman are connected to either the rights of Allah like Salaah and Hajj or connected to our brothers, like honouring one’s guest, neighbours and refraining from ill speech.
In connection to safe guarding one’s speech, Mu’adh bin Jabal رضي الله عنه) ) has narrated that the Messenger (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) of Allah said: ‘A person will always be secure and safe as long as he remains silent, as for when he speaks it may be written for or against him.’
(Kanzul Ummaal, Hadith # 43579, Pg 916, Publisher Mu-assatur Risaalah.)
The second point in this narration is about ensuring that our neighbour is safe from any form of harm whether verbally or physically. Even Allah mentions about doing Ihsan and kindness to one’s neighbour in the Quran. The scholars have stated that harming ones neighbour is totally haraam in Islaam.
The point of honouring one’s guest is also mentioned in this hadith and many other traditions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ). Hence, it is a very great sunnah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) which must be adopted by the believers.
ذَٰلِكَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ
6. That is He, the All Knower of the unseen and the seen, the All Mighty, the Most Merciful.
This verse means that everything which takes place in the heavens and the earth, and the decree and plans that Allah has made for these, are all easy for Him (Allah) because He is the Knower of the hidden and the seen. He knows every single thing that is hidden from all the creations and that which is visible to them. He knows that which is hidden from the eyes and hearts of men and that which is visible and known to them. He knows the past as well as the future, the existent, as well as the non-existent. Nothing is hidden from His knowledge, and nothing escapes His sight.
He is the All Mighty. He controls all matters and affairs of His creations, and is supremely powerful over all things. He is also extremely compassionate and most Merciful. Hence, He shows mercy, leniency, love and kindness to His servants. Thus, with these outstanding attributes, He decrees and governs the affairs of all His creations.
In this verse, there is a warning and an admonition to man, telling him that he should be careful of all his actions and beliefs, for certainly, Allah knows what he conceals and what he reveals, and will reward or punish him for what he has done. He should therefore have the correct beliefs in his heart, speak that which is good with the tongue, and do good actions with the limbs. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Vol.14, Pg.83, Maktaba Rasheediya)
Sura As Sajdah goes further in verse 7 to state:
الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنْسَانِ مِنْ طِينٍ
7. Who made everything He has created good, and He began the creation of man from clay.
As mentioned by many great commentators including the companion, Abdullah bin Abbas (R.A), the verse means that Allah has perfected the creation of everything. He has created everything in accordance to its function, and in accordance to what He intended from it. Accordingly, each creature functions in accordance to Allah’s perfect design.
Therefore, even if something does not appear to be physically beautiful, it does not mean that its design and creation is not perfect. Each has been created in a manner that is suitable for its functions, lifestyle and environment. The shape, the look, the size of the limbs of each animal differ greatly from each other, yet, each has been put in its proper place and has been well designed by Allah. (Tafseer Al Bahrul Muheet, Vol.8, Pg. 432, Darul Fikr / Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Vol.14, Pg.83, Maktaba Rasheediya)
Some commentators have mentioned that the verse refers to the fact that Allah has created everything good. He has not made anything bad. The reason for this is that whatever Allah has created in this world, it has been made in accordance to His wisdom, and in consideration to what benefit it gives to the world. Hence, everything is good in itself. Bad comes about when it is used in the wrong manner, or when it functions against the guidelines which Allah has prescribed for it. For example, there are animals that are detested by men, like the dogs, pigs etc., and there are others that are beastly in nature, like the lions, tigers etc. Although these may, at times, cause harm to man, yet, in terms of the benefit they give to the world as a whole, and with respect to the purpose of their creation, they are not bad. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Vol.14, Pg.83, Maktaba Rasheediya)
The verse continues by saying, ‘and He began the creation of man from clay’. It means that Allah began the creation of man by first creating Adam (A.S), the father of mankind. In creating him, Allah used clay of the earth, and breathed the soul into him. With this, the lifeless clay turned into an animate object that began to move about. This shows the great power and ability (Qudrah) of Allah in that He has created life from a lifeless object.
The other verses continue to speak of Allah’s great power in creating the progeny of Adam (A.S). Verses 8 and 9 state:
ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلَالَةٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ مَهِينٍ
8. Then He made his offspring from semen of despised water.
ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ
9. Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him the soul, and He gave you hearing (ears), sight (eyes) and hearts. Little is the thanks you give!
It means that after creating Adam (A.S), Allah created the rest of mankind (the progeny of Adam) from a liquid which comes from both the male and the female. The verse describes this liquid as a ‘despised water’, referring to the fact that man’s creation stems from a low, weak and impure discharge which comes from both the male and female.
Having started to create life in the womb of the mother (by causing her to conceive), Allah then fashioned man by taking him through different stages of development. He took him from the stage of being a ‘mixed liquid’ (sexual discharge of the male and female), to being a clot of congealed blood. Then to a lump of flesh which changed into bones and then covered with flesh. During this time, Allah fashioned and shaped the body in the womb of the mother. After this, Allah breathed the soul into the body and made it into a beautiful human being, who gradually progressed to the stage of completion. While man went through these diverse phases of development, Allah created in him the senses of hearing, sight and the heart (intelligence), along with other faculties.
All these have been created in man so that he may use them to be rightly guided on the face of the earth. He is required to use his sense of hearing to listen to the truth which has been revealed by Allah. He must use his sight to recognize Allah’s favors, His wonderful creations and His greatness, and should use his heart and intelligence to choose the truth and to choose guidance. With all these great favors, man is expected to show gratitude to Allah through worship and obedience, but unfortunately, he fails to do so, and becomes ungrateful. It is about this conduct of man, Allah says, ‘Little is the thanks you give’. It means that man’s gratitude to Allah is very little.
After mentioning the creation of the heavens and the earth, verse 4 goes further to state, ‘then He (Allah) rose above the throne (istawa)’. Here, in this verse, it is mentioned that Allah rose above the throne. The Arabic word used to express this is ‘Istawa’ which, when followed by the preposition ‘Ala’ (on) literally means to be established or to be settled upon a thing.
In the Holy Quran, this word has been used in a few places where different meanings have been given to it. (Lughatul Quran – Allama Abdur Rasheed Nu’mani – vol.1 pg. 84).
In the above verse (i.e. v.4 of Sura Sajdah), the translation given to this part of the verse as well as other similar verses is that ‘then He (Allah) rose above the throne’ or ‘He established Himself above the throne’. This however, is not upon its literal meaning; instead, it is upon a meaning that is intended and known by Allah alone.
While commenting on verses that speak about ‘Allah’s rising above the throne’, the great commentator Allama Qurtubi writes, ‘Most of the former and latter scholars hold the view that Allah is free from direction, domain and confines. This being the case, it necessarily follows that according to most of the former scholars and leaders of the latter ones, that Allah is free from all directions. As such, according to them, the direction of ‘above’ is not there (that is, it is not to be used for Allah). The reason for this is that whenever He (Allah) is specified with a direction, then a place, domain and confine will be established for Him, and when this takes place, it means that movements, stillness, changes and new occurrences will come about in the essence and being of Allah, when in reality, He is free and pure of all these matters, and is not subjected to such movements and alterations. This is the statement of the theologians’.
Imam Qurtubi writes further, ‘The pious predecessors did not negate a direction, nor did they say that a direction was established. But, they said that it was established for Allah in the same manner the Book of Allah and the Messenger of Allah spoke about it. No one from among the pious predecessors denied that Allah ‘rose above the throne’, in truth, and the ‘throne’ was mentioned because it is the greatest of Allah’s creation. None has the knowledge of the mode of ‘rising above the throne’, and its reality is unknown. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi vol.7 pg. 196)
The above explanation shows that with respect to Allah’s ‘rising above the throne’, none has the knowledge to explain this except Him. This is from among the divine attributes of Allah which cannot be understood or analyzed based on the actions of the created beings. Allah is free from all wants and needs. He is free from place and time, and He has no need for a throne or being above a throne. In this regard, Imam Abu Hanifa (A.R) writes in his book Al Wasiyya, ‘We agree that Allah is established (Istawa) on the Throne without His needing it or resting on it, and He is the guardian of the Throne and all besides the Throne. If He were in need, He would not have been able to bring into existence the Universe, or administrate over its affairs, just as created beings cannot. If He were in need of sitting or settling (on it), then before the creation of the Throne, where was He, the Most High? In effect, He is transcendent of all of this’. (Sharh Al Fiqhul Akbar (Mullah Ali Qaari) pg. 37)
On this issue, it is narrated that a man came to Imam Malik (A.R) and asked about the Throne. In response, Imam Malik (A.R) said, ‘The establishment (Istiwa) (on the throne) is known, the mode (‘how’) is unknown, asking about it is an innovation, and belief in it is compulsory’. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi vol.7 pg. 196).
In another similar narration, Hafiz Ibn Abd Al Barr relates that Ayyub ibn Salah Al Makhzumi reported, ‘we were with Imam Malik (A.R) when an Iraqi came and said, ‘O Abu Abdillah, Allah became established on His Throne, how did He become established?’ Imam Malik (A.R) replied, ‘You have asked about what is not unknown (i.e. the establishment on the Throne is known from the Quran), and you have spoken about what is incomprehensible (i.e. the mode and the ‘how’ of establishment upon the Throne is unknown). (Al Tamheed)
It is also narrated from Umm Salma (R.A) that she said, ‘Establishment on the Throne is not unknown (that is, it is known through the Quran), the mode of it is unknown, affirming it is Imaan (faith), and denying it is kufr (disbelief). (Ibn Marwiya and Laalka’i have narrated it in Kitaabus Sunnah – Fathul Bayaan vol.3 pg. 307 – Lughatul Quran vol.1 pg. 86)
While explaining this verse of ‘Allah’s rising above the Throne’, Hafiz Ibn Katheer has written, ‘We must thread the path of the Mazhab of the pious predecessors like that of Malik, Al Awzaa’ie, Thawri, Laith bin Sa’ad, Shafi, Ahmad, Ishaq bin Rahaway and others besides them from the leaders of the Muslims of the past and present. (They held firm to the view) that this should be accepted in the same way it is mentioned without describing a mode, a semblance or likeness and without negating it’.
‘For certainly nothing of the created beings is like Allah, and Allah is not like anything’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer vol.2 pg. 220 – Amjad Academy Lahore Pakistan 1982)
In summary, the path of the pious predecessors is the safest way to adopt as clearly stated by the great jurist expert, Mufti Muhammad Shafi (A.R). On this issue of ‘Allah’s establishment on the Throne’, he writes, ‘Regarding this, the safest creed to hold which is clear and correct, and free from doubt, is none other but that of the most righteous elders, the Sahabah and the Tabieen. The creed is that human reason is incapable of comprehending the reality of the Being and attributes of Allah. Pursuing the knowledge of its exact reality is an exercise in futility, even harmful. One should believe, as a matter of general principle, that the meaning intended by Allah (whatever it may be) is the one correct and true. In this process, one should not try to determine or worry about fixing a meaning on one’s own’. (Ma’ariful Quran vol.3 pg. 598)
It is to be noted here, that some of the righteous successors have given interpretations on certain attributes of Allah. This, according to many great scholars, was more judicious and wise according to the exigencies of their times. In other words, the interpretations of certain attributes given by the successors were viewed as being more judicious and wise in light of the resistance they met from deviated sects (especially the Mu’tazila and more specifically the anthropomorphists), who tried to influence the masses to turn towards their heretical ideas. The practice of the pious predecessors of maintaining silence (and not giving an interpretation) regarding such texts (and verses) was no longer viewed as an adequate approach to overcome such heresy, and thus, some of the expert scholars from among the successors attempted to give interpretations, but at the same time, they maintained that the way of the pious predecessors was safer.
With respect to the concession of giving interpretation in these matters, the great scholar Ibn Daqeeq Al‘Id (died 702 A.H) mentions that interpretation of these attributes is acceptable if the meaning is close to the popular usage of the Arabs and it is unacceptable if it is distant. The great jurist expert and scholar, Allama Ibn Al Humaam (died 681 A.H) has stated that it depends upon the situation. If interpretation is required owing to a problem in the understanding of the people, then it is allowed, otherwise it should be left out. (Sharh Al Fiqh Al Akbar – Mulla Ali Qaari pg. 38-39).