15th November 2013.
The Darul Uloom Institute of Higher Islamic Studies extends a cordial invitation to all Muslim Youths 14 years and over to attend its 4th Islamic Youth Conference.
This will be held on the 20th and 21st of December 2013 and will be hosted at the Darul Uloom Boy’s College (for Boys) and at the Darul Uloom Girls’ College (for girls).
Our youngsters are invited to be a part of the interactive and exciting programmes that will be held at the conference, and learn about their role as Muslims in today’s society. Adults are also invited to attend the main lectures on Friday (20th Dec) and Saturday (21st Dec) after the Maghrib Salaah. These lectures will be delivered by the world renowned Shaikh Zahir Mahmood of the United Kingdom.
For more information call the Darul Uloom at 665 8868 or 665 1442.
Mufti Waseem Khan
Darul Uloom T&T
REGISTER BELOW !!!
The crescent moon to commence the month of Safar 1435 AH was looked for after the sunset of Tue 3rd Dec 2013. The moon was CONFIRMED SIGHTED locally and within the region. The Darul Uloom Moonsighting Committee has accepted these reports and has declared that the month of Muharram has complete 29 days and the 1st night of Safar 1435 AH is the night of Tuesday 3rd December 2013 and the 1st day will be the day of Wednesday 4th December 2013.
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّهُ مَنْ لَمْ يَسْأَلِ اللَّهَ يَغْضَبْ عَلَيْهِ»
Abu Hurairah (R.A) narrated, that the Messenger of Allah (SAW) said, “He who does not ask Allah for anything, earns Allah’s wrath.”
(Tirmizi, Hadith No.3373, Pg.462, Vol.2, Altaf and Sons / Ahmad, Hadith No.9707, Pg.446, Vol.2, Darul Fikr / Bazaar, Hadith No.9425, Pg.248, Vol.16, Maktaba Uloom Wal Hakam)
All sins are forgiven
عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: ” مَنْ قَالَ حِينَ يَأْوِي إِلَى فِرَاشِهِ: أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللَّهَ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الحَيَّ القَيُّومَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْهِ، ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ، غَفَرَ اللَّهُ ذُنُوبَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ مِثْلَ زَبَدِ البَحْرِ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ عَدَدَ وَرَقِ الشَّجَرِ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ عَدَدَ رَمْلِ عَالِجٍ، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ عَدَدَ أَيَّامِ الدُّنْيَا”
Abu Saeed (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be on him) said, “Whoever says, when he goes to his bed:
أَسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ الَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْهِ
‘I seek forgiveness from Allah, (the Magnificent) the One whom there is none worthy of worship except for Him, the Living, the Sustainer, and I repent to him.’
three (3) times, Allah shall forgive him his sins if they are like the foam of the sea, even if they were the number of leaves of the trees, even if they were the number of sand particles of ‘Aalij (a place where sand mound into dunes), even if they were the number of days of the world.”
Tirmidhi, Hadith No.3397, Pg.468, Vol.2, Altaf and Son
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى
اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلْيَقُلْ
خَيْرًا أَوْ لِيَصْمُتْ وَمَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلَا
يُؤْذِ جَارَهُ وَمَنْ كَانَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَلْيُكْرِمْ
Abu Hurairah (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ) said: The Messeger of Allah (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) said: ‘Whoever believes in Allah and the last day, then he should say only good things or he should remain silent; and whoever believes in Allah and the last day, then he should not harm his neighbour; and whoever believes in Allah and the last day then he should honour his guest
(Bukhaari, Hadith # 6475, page 1812, Publisher Altaaf and sons’)
In this narration we can see that by saying “whoever believes in Allah and the last day” the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) indicates that these are some of the qualities and entities that constitute one’s Imaan.
From this, the scholars have stated that the entities of Iman are connected to either the rights of Allah like Salaah and Hajj or connected to our brothers, like honouring one’s guest, neighbours and refraining from ill speech.
In connection to safe guarding one’s speech, Mu’adh bin Jabal رضي الله عنه) ) has narrated that the Messenger (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) of Allah said: ‘A person will always be secure and safe as long as he remains silent, as for when he speaks it may be written for or against him.’
(Kanzul Ummaal, Hadith # 43579, Pg 916, Publisher Mu-assatur Risaalah.)
The second point in this narration is about ensuring that our neighbour is safe from any form of harm whether verbally or physically. Even Allah mentions about doing Ihsan and kindness to one’s neighbour in the Quran. The scholars have stated that harming ones neighbour is totally haraam in Islaam.
The point of honouring one’s guest is also mentioned in this hadith and many other traditions of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ). Hence, it is a very great sunnah of the Prophet (صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ) which must be adopted by the believers.
Verse 4 (of Sura Sajdah) goes further and states, ‘You have none besides Him as a protector or an intercessor. Will you not take heed?’
Here, man is informed that besides Allah, there is no one who can help him and protect him from difficulties in this life and the hereafter. Similarly, no one can intercede for him except that it is with Allah’s permission. Allah is the Master of all affairs and the Creator of everything. He alone governs all matters and is the custodian of all that exists. He is the All Mighty, the All Powerful One who has supreme authority over His creation. Hence, there is no governor, protector or helper for His creation except Him, and there is no intercessor who can intercede on behalf of another except by His permission. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Vol.3, Pg.456, Amjad Academy, Lahore, Pakistan)
While commenting on this section of the verse, the great exegete (Mufassir), Ibn Jareer (A.R) writes, ‘Here Allah says, ‘O man besides Him (Allah), you have none as a protector who can take care of your affairs and can help you against Him if he wishes to harm you. Nor is there any intercessor who can intercede for you in front of Him, if He wishes to punish you for your sins. So take Him alone as a protector, and seek help from Him through His obedience for all your affairs. For certainly, he would protect you when anyone intends to cause harm to you, but no one has the ability to repel Him if He intends to cause harm to you. This is because no subduer can subdue Him and no conqueror can conquer or overpower Him’. (Tafseer At Tabari, Vol.21, Pg.104 Dar Ihya At Turath Ar Arabi)
Having placed this reality and fact before man, Allah says (to him), ‘Will you not take heed?’ It means, ‘O men, will you not ponder and give consideration to this, so that you will know (as a truth) that besides Allah, there is no one who can help and protect you, and no one can intercede for you. So, accept Him as one God and believe in Him. Worship Him alone and leave off all the other objects of worship besides Him’. (Tafseer At Tabari, Vol.21, Pg.104, Dar Ihya At Turath Ar Arabi)
Man should therefore take heed of this, and refrain from concocting equals, peers and rivals for Allah. There is no mediator between man and Allah. He (Allah) has no helper or attendant, and there is none like Him in His essence and attributes. Allah is free and pure from what the unbelievers and polytheists attribute to Him.
Sura Sajdah continues in verse 5 and states:
يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّونَ
5. He arranges (every) affair from the heavens to the earth, then it (affair) will go up to Him, in one Day, the duration of which is a thousand years of your reckoning.
The verse means that all affairs of the creations, existing from the heavens to the earth are made, decreed and governed by Allah. While explaining this verse, Abdullah bin Abbas (R.A) states, ‘It means that Allah alone governs and manages all affairs in His entire creation. He decrees, ordains, plans and governs all matters. Nothing escapes Him, and no single matter is left out’. (Safwatut Tafseer, Vol.12, Pg.36, Darul Quran Al Kareem, Beirut)
‘The decree and ordainment of Allah are sent from the heavens to the earth. Everything that Allah has planned and decreed are sent down’. (Safwatut Tafseer, Vol.12, Pg.37, Darul Quran Al Kareem, Beirut / Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Vol.14, Pg.80, Maktaba Raseediya, Queta)
While commenting on this verse, Hafiz Ibn Katheer (A.R) states, ‘it means that Allah’s commands are sent down from the highest heaven to the lowest boundary of the seventh earth’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Vol.3, Pg. 457, Amjad Academy, Lahore, Pakistan)
The verse goes further to state, ‘then it will go up to Him, on a day, the duration of which is a thousand years according to your count’. It means that all the matters and affairs that take place on the face of the earth will one day be presented before Allah for judgment. This day shall be the day of Reckoning and Judgment where each person shall be recompensed for what he did of good and bad deeds. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Vol.14, Pg.80, Maktaba Raseediya, Queta / Safwatut Tafseer, Vol.12, Pg.37, Darul Quran Al Kareem, Beirut)
Regarding the above, some commentators have stated that the day mentioned in the verse refers the Day of Judgment. The verse states that this day equals to one thousand years of the worldly life, which means that the duration of the Day of Judgment will be one thousand years. However, while this is the understanding from this verse, another verse in Sura Al Ma’arij states that the duration of the Day of Judgment shall be fifty thousand years. About this, Sura Ma’arij states:
تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ
‘The angels and the Ruh [Jibrael (A.S)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.’ (Sura Al Ma’arij, Verse 4)
Based on these two verses, there seems to be an apparent difference with respect to the actual duration of the Day of Judgment. In order to get a proper explanation on this matter, a person once asked Abdullah bin Abbas (R.A) about it, and he gave the following reply:
He said, ‘These are two days which Allah has mentioned in His book, and He knows best regarding their reality. I dislike saying something about the book of Allah, of which I have no knowledge’. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi, Vol.14, Pg.81-82, Maktaba Raseediya, Queta)
Some commentators have mentioned that the difference in duration will be with regards to different people. To some, the day will seem to last a thousand years, while to others, it will appear as fifty thousand years because of the severe punishments and torments. In fact, according to a hadith, the day will be so easy for the true believers that it will seem to them as short as the time taken to perform two rakaah of Salaah.
Besides the above commentary (which has been given by many great commentators of the Quran), other exegetes have given different explanations of the verse (i.e. v.5). Hafiz Ibn Jareer At Tabari (A.R) has recorded that with respect to the explanation of this verse, the expert exegetes like Mujahid, Qatada, Dhahak and Ikrama (A.R) have stated that it means that all matters descend from the heavens to the earth and ascend from the earth to the heavens in one day. The duration of this day of the worldly days is one thousand years. This duration reaches to this amount because the distance between the heavens and the earth is five hundred years, and the distance between the earth and the heavens is five hundred years. Hence, the descent (coming down) and the ascent (going up) of all matters take a time of one thousand years of the counting of this world. This commentary has been preferred by Hafiz Ibn Jareer (A.R) and has been considered the best and the correct commentary of the verse in his opinion. (Tafseer At Tabari, Vol.21, Pg.104-107, Dar Ihya At Turath Ar Arabi)
After mentioning the creation of the heavens and the earth, verse 4 goes further to state, ‘then He (Allah) rose above the throne (istawa)’. Here, in this verse, it is mentioned that Allah rose above the throne. The Arabic word used to express this is ‘Istawa’ which, when followed by the preposition ‘Ala’ (on) literally means to be established or to be settled upon a thing.
In the Holy Quran, this word has been used in a few places where different meanings have been given to it. (Lughatul Quran – Allama Abdur Rasheed Nu’mani – vol.1 pg. 84).
In the above verse (i.e. v.4 of Sura Sajdah), the translation given to this part of the verse as well as other similar verses is that ‘then He (Allah) rose above the throne’ or ‘He established Himself above the throne’. This however, is not upon its literal meaning; instead, it is upon a meaning that is intended and known by Allah alone.
While commenting on verses that speak about ‘Allah’s rising above the throne’, the great commentator Allama Qurtubi writes, ‘Most of the former and latter scholars hold the view that Allah is free from direction, domain and confines. This being the case, it necessarily follows that according to most of the former scholars and leaders of the latter ones, that Allah is free from all directions. As such, according to them, the direction of ‘above’ is not there (that is, it is not to be used for Allah). The reason for this is that whenever He (Allah) is specified with a direction, then a place, domain and confine will be established for Him, and when this takes place, it means that movements, stillness, changes and new occurrences will come about in the essence and being of Allah, when in reality, He is free and pure of all these matters, and is not subjected to such movements and alterations. This is the statement of the theologians’.
Imam Qurtubi writes further, ‘The pious predecessors did not negate a direction, nor did they say that a direction was established. But, they said that it was established for Allah in the same manner the Book of Allah and the Messenger of Allah spoke about it. No one from among the pious predecessors denied that Allah ‘rose above the throne’, in truth, and the ‘throne’ was mentioned because it is the greatest of Allah’s creation. None has the knowledge of the mode of ‘rising above the throne’, and its reality is unknown. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi vol.7 pg. 196)
The above explanation shows that with respect to Allah’s ‘rising above the throne’, none has the knowledge to explain this except Him. This is from among the divine attributes of Allah which cannot be understood or analyzed based on the actions of the created beings. Allah is free from all wants and needs. He is free from place and time, and He has no need for a throne or being above a throne. In this regard, Imam Abu Hanifa (A.R) writes in his book Al Wasiyya, ‘We agree that Allah is established (Istawa) on the Throne without His needing it or resting on it, and He is the guardian of the Throne and all besides the Throne. If He were in need, He would not have been able to bring into existence the Universe, or administrate over its affairs, just as created beings cannot. If He were in need of sitting or settling (on it), then before the creation of the Throne, where was He, the Most High? In effect, He is transcendent of all of this’. (Sharh Al Fiqhul Akbar (Mullah Ali Qaari) pg. 37)
On this issue, it is narrated that a man came to Imam Malik (A.R) and asked about the Throne. In response, Imam Malik (A.R) said, ‘The establishment (Istiwa) (on the throne) is known, the mode (‘how’) is unknown, asking about it is an innovation, and belief in it is compulsory’. (Tafseer Al Qurtubi vol.7 pg. 196).
In another similar narration, Hafiz Ibn Abd Al Barr relates that Ayyub ibn Salah Al Makhzumi reported, ‘we were with Imam Malik (A.R) when an Iraqi came and said, ‘O Abu Abdillah, Allah became established on His Throne, how did He become established?’ Imam Malik (A.R) replied, ‘You have asked about what is not unknown (i.e. the establishment on the Throne is known from the Quran), and you have spoken about what is incomprehensible (i.e. the mode and the ‘how’ of establishment upon the Throne is unknown). (Al Tamheed)
It is also narrated from Umm Salma (R.A) that she said, ‘Establishment on the Throne is not unknown (that is, it is known through the Quran), the mode of it is unknown, affirming it is Imaan (faith), and denying it is kufr (disbelief). (Ibn Marwiya and Laalka’i have narrated it in Kitaabus Sunnah – Fathul Bayaan vol.3 pg. 307 – Lughatul Quran vol.1 pg. 86)
While explaining this verse of ‘Allah’s rising above the Throne’, Hafiz Ibn Katheer has written, ‘We must thread the path of the Mazhab of the pious predecessors like that of Malik, Al Awzaa’ie, Thawri, Laith bin Sa’ad, Shafi, Ahmad, Ishaq bin Rahaway and others besides them from the leaders of the Muslims of the past and present. (They held firm to the view) that this should be accepted in the same way it is mentioned without describing a mode, a semblance or likeness and without negating it’.
‘For certainly nothing of the created beings is like Allah, and Allah is not like anything’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer vol.2 pg. 220 – Amjad Academy Lahore Pakistan 1982)
In summary, the path of the pious predecessors is the safest way to adopt as clearly stated by the great jurist expert, Mufti Muhammad Shafi (A.R). On this issue of ‘Allah’s establishment on the Throne’, he writes, ‘Regarding this, the safest creed to hold which is clear and correct, and free from doubt, is none other but that of the most righteous elders, the Sahabah and the Tabieen. The creed is that human reason is incapable of comprehending the reality of the Being and attributes of Allah. Pursuing the knowledge of its exact reality is an exercise in futility, even harmful. One should believe, as a matter of general principle, that the meaning intended by Allah (whatever it may be) is the one correct and true. In this process, one should not try to determine or worry about fixing a meaning on one’s own’. (Ma’ariful Quran vol.3 pg. 598)
It is to be noted here, that some of the righteous successors have given interpretations on certain attributes of Allah. This, according to many great scholars, was more judicious and wise according to the exigencies of their times. In other words, the interpretations of certain attributes given by the successors were viewed as being more judicious and wise in light of the resistance they met from deviated sects (especially the Mu’tazila and more specifically the anthropomorphists), who tried to influence the masses to turn towards their heretical ideas. The practice of the pious predecessors of maintaining silence (and not giving an interpretation) regarding such texts (and verses) was no longer viewed as an adequate approach to overcome such heresy, and thus, some of the expert scholars from among the successors attempted to give interpretations, but at the same time, they maintained that the way of the pious predecessors was safer.
With respect to the concession of giving interpretation in these matters, the great scholar Ibn Daqeeq Al‘Id (died 702 A.H) mentions that interpretation of these attributes is acceptable if the meaning is close to the popular usage of the Arabs and it is unacceptable if it is distant. The great jurist expert and scholar, Allama Ibn Al Humaam (died 681 A.H) has stated that it depends upon the situation. If interpretation is required owing to a problem in the understanding of the people, then it is allowed, otherwise it should be left out. (Sharh Al Fiqh Al Akbar – Mulla Ali Qaari pg. 38-39).